Bird's-eye-view then and now
A Nazi memorial to Dietrich Eckart, one of the important early members of the NSDAP and a participant of the 1923 Beer Hall Putsch. It was to him that Hitler had dedicated the second volume of Mein Kampf in which he is described as a martyr and is referred to in the last sentence of the book:
And among them I could also reckon that man who as no one else has devoted his life to the awakening of his, of our nation in writing, poetry, thought and finally in the deed.Incredibly, it still remains in his hometown. Hitler was here on October 29, 1933 where he spoke at its unveiling. Eckart's 1925 unfinished essay Hitler-Eckart: Der Bolschewismus von Moses bis Lenin: Zwiegespräch zwischen Hitler und mir ( Bolshevism from Moses to Lenin: Dialogues Between Hitler and Me") was published posthumously, although it has been shown that the dialogues were an invention.
Nazi propaganda over Untere Marktstraße and today
March by the Reichsarbeitsdienst, looking the other way on Obere Marktstraße
The Gasthaus Zum Hechten at Untere Marktstraße 3; today the building appears to have been completed replaced. Not surprising given the damage the town received during the war:
The Unteres Tor during the war and as it appears today
Obere Marktstraße-Klostergasse with the church still in the background
The rathaus in 1935, after the war and as it appears today
The railway station during the Third Reich and now
Adolf-Hitler-Platz then and now
This Hitler Jugend haus, completed in 1938, is still a Youth Hostel.
Whilst the marktplatz and its fountain has survived the war, in large part thanks to the town's youth: "The brave boys instantly got their hoses and connected to the water, and it was a real pleasure to see the Pimpfe and Hitler-Jungen rush to the fire" according to the Eichstätter Heimatzeitung on March 13, 1943. Already in July 1940 the party announced: "7000 Hitler Youth are under the fireman's helmet." The average age was 16 years. The training lasted for six months, and the youth learned to operate all fire equipment, "so that they can collaborate with experienced firefighters at each deployment."
Nazikult in Eichstätt- Die Geschichte der ThingstätteWeilheim
Adolf-Hitler-Platz then and now
The Vier-Jahreszeiten-Brunnen at the former Adolf-Hitler-Platz and today
The remains of the Eichstätt Thingstätte, built 1935
Adolf-Hitler-Platz then and now
NS-Kreistag at the site on June 16, 1938 showing from the left NS-Kreisleiter Hausböck (Garmisch-Partenkirchen, NS-Kreisleiter Dennerl (Weilheim), Stellv. Gauleiter Nippold and Gauleiter Wagner.
The Vier-Jahreszeiten-Brunnen at the former Adolf-Hitler-Platz and today
The Schlosskirche after the war with an American GI surveying the looted art recovered from the Nazis, and today
Around June 25 1938, Hitler attended manoeuvres on the training grounds at Grafenwöhr, close to the Czechoslovakian border, where American paratroopers assigned to Destined Company, 2nd Battalion, 503rd Infantry Regiment, 173rd Infantry Brigade Combat Team (Airborne) took part in a military exercise on February 1, 2014.
The rathaus in the period photo bears the sign "Grafenwöhr grüßt die siegreichen Truppen"- Grafenwöhr greets its richly-honoured troops.
Adolf-Hitler-Strasse then and now
Around June 25 1938, Hitler attended manoeuvres on the training grounds at Grafenwöhr, close to the Czechoslovakian border, where American paratroopers assigned to Destined Company, 2nd Battalion, 503rd Infantry Regiment, 173rd Infantry Brigade Combat Team (Airborne) took part in a military exercise on February 1, 2014.
The water tower on Truppenübungsplatz in 1935 and today
The rathaus in the period photo bears the sign "Grafenwöhr grüßt die siegreichen Truppen"- Grafenwöhr greets its richly-honoured troops.
Adolf-Hitler-Platz then and now. Hitler himself had, on October 11 1932, launched a speechmaking campaign comparable in magnitude to his “Flights over Germany” here where he declared
Herr von Papen was of the conviction that his emergency decree for the stimulation of the economy would bring brilliant results by November 6, and thus he scheduled the date for the Reichstag election sixty days after its dissolution. And I was of the conviction that the nation would see in these sixty days that this effort at “stimulating the economy” was the greatest feat of bungling and patchwork one can imagine. I was of the conviction that one question would be answered before even four weeks had passed, namely the question why I refused to enter this Cabinet on August 13. This will be decided on November.
It was not, however, the opponents in question who reproached me for refusing to join the Cabinet; it was the so-called “friends” in the bourgeois camp. At this point, I might ask with the same justification: how was it that you dared to invite me to join this Government?
Did you really believe that I worked for thirteen years to deliver the result of this work to the mercy of political lunacy? And it would have been lunacy had I staked everything on one horse, long aware that it was unfit for the race. Influence was one thing I would not have had in the Cabinet, but the responsibility was something they would have graciously surrendered.
I have no qualms about assuming the responsibility, and I mean the entire responsibility, but I do have qualms about assuming it in areas where I have no influence. If Fate had chosen those forces which today thirst for power to be Germany’s leadership, it would be a crime to resist. However, I do not believe that Fate could have chosen these men, because otherwise they would have made an appearance earlier. It is not possible for someone who was a silent member of the Centre Party until five months ago to then one day suddenly become the “brightly enlightened leader” to the Third Reich. I did not fight Marxism in order to erect a different class regime in its place. I have stood before millions of German workers in these thirteen years and have struggled for their support. But I did not fight to betray them now in the end.
Above all, my opponents are mistaken about my tremendous resolve. I have chosen my path, and I will adhere to it until the end. Whether or not I gain power is not as important as the fact that I carry out what I have promised. Similarly, the Party is not for sale and cannot be bought from me. Do not make the mistake of believing that I would lend out this Movement even for a second or allow others to use it for their work.
Adolf-Hitler-Strasse then and now
This was the hometown of Nazi politician Franz Xaver Schwarz and the "angel of death" Josef Mengele, SS officer and Auschwitz physician.The town's memorial to the victims of the concentration camp doctor Josef Mengele, composed of a display board around which single eyes (around 50 created by pupils from Dossenberger-Gymnasium) and pairs of eyes (around 25 by the 6th form art foundation course pupils from Maria-Ward-Gymnasium) are grouped. The single eyes and pairs of eyes were modelled from clay in lessons and baked after air drying. From the “clay eyes”, the foundry finished the final step of making silicon formed wax models, through the manufacturing of moulds. The memorial was unveiled on the 8th March 2005. According to Mengele's son Rolf, his father returned to the Gunzburg area toward the end of 1948 and stayed in the nearby forests until the spring of 1949. Mengele told Irene that he expected her and Rolf to follow once he had established himself in Buenos Aires. But Irene would not agree to go with him. Mengele's flight was arranged and paid for by his family through former SS contacts in the Gunzburg area.
This was a town that had driven out its 309 resident Jews after the Nazis came to power. There was a widespread readiness to believe that the allegations against Mengele were false. And broadcasts across Germany by the overseas service of the BBC claiming that the SS had engaged in monstrous acts of carnage, were viewed as Allied victory propaganda.
From an article by noted plagiarist Gerald L. Posner and John Ware, Chicago Tribune Magazine, May 18, 1986
The Frauenkirche then and now
Standing together in defiance, 100,000 people gather across France to show support for 12 people slaughtered by 'Al Qaeda' gunmen in attack on Paris magazine as manhunt for terrorists continues Masked gunmen storm Paris headquarters with AK-47s shouting 'Allahu akbar!' and 'the Prophet has been avenged' Stalked building asking for people's names before killing the editor, three cartoonists and the deputy chief editor Editor Stephane Charbonnier had famously shrugged off threats, saying: 'I'd rather die standing than live kneeling' Horrific footage shows a police officer begging for his life before being shot in the head at point-blank range Cartoonist Corrine Rey told how she cowered with her young daughter as she watched two colleagues gunned down Killers fled in stolen car across eastern Paris after a 'mass shoot-out' with police officers and remain on the loose Militants believed to be from Al Qaeda in the Arabian Peninsula which was behind plane bomb plots in US and UK Three suspects said to be all French citizens - a homeless teenage man aged 18, and two brothers aged 32 and 34 Newspaper had earlier posted a picture of Islamic State leader Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi on its Twitter account Publication's offices were firebombed in 2011 for publishing satirical cartoon of Prophet Mohammed White House had previously criticised Charlie Hebdo in 2012 for publishing its religiously sensitive cartoons By Mark Duell and Simon Tomlinson and Peter Allen and Jay Akbar and Chris Pleasance for MailOnline Published: 11:16 GMT, 7 January 2015 | Updated: 20:50 GMT, 7 January 2015 12k shares 5.3k View comments At least 100,000 people gathered across France tonight to back an anti-Islamist newspaper whose offices were devastated by a deadly terrorist attack. Suspected Al Qaeda militants massacred 12 people in Paris today - and among those slaughtered was a police officer as he begged for mercy. Tonight, thousands of people went to Republique Square near the scene to honour the victims, holding signs reading 'Je suis Charlie' - 'I am Charlie'. It came as a massive manhunt was launched to find the masked attackers, who earlier burst into the Charlie Hebdo offices brandishing Kalashnikovs. Clad all in black with hoods and speaking French, the militants forced one of the cartoonists - at the office with her young daughter - to open the door. Witnesses said the gunmen shouted 'we are from the Al Qaeda in Yemen', and 'Allahu akbar!' - Arabic for 'God is great' - as they stalked the building. Scroll down for videos and audio Demonstration: Protesters at the Place de la Republique in Paris tonight, following an attack by gunmen on the offices of Charlie Hebdo +38 Demonstration: Protesters at the Place de la Republique in Paris tonight, following an attack by gunmen on the offices of Charlie Hebdo Elsewhere: People gather at the Place Royale in Nantes to show their solidarity for the victims of the attack on the offices of the satirical weekly Elsewhere: People gather at the Place Royale in Nantes to show their solidarity for the victims of the attack on the offices of the satirical weekly Brutal execution: A police officer pleads for mercy on the pavement in Paris before being shot in the head by masked gunmen during an attack on the headquarters of the French satirical publication Charlie Hebdo, a notoriously anti-Islamic publication Brutal execution: A police officer pleads for mercy on the pavement in Paris before being shot in the head by masked gunmen during an attack on the headquarters of the French satirical publication Charlie Hebdo, a notoriously anti-Islamic publication Gunned down in cold blood: Horrific footage shows the injured police officer slumped on the pavement as two of the gunmen approach. In a desperate plea for his life, the officer slowly raises his hand towards one of the attackers, who callously shoots him at point-blank range Gunned down in cold blood: Horrific footage shows the injured police officer slumped on the pavement as two of the gunmen approach. In a desperate plea for his life, the officer slowly raises his hand towards one of the attackers, who callously shoots him at point-blank range 'Massacre': The gunmen are seen brandishing Kalashnikovs as they move in on the injured police officer from their vehicle outside the office 'Massacre': The gunmen are seen brandishing Kalashnikovs as they move in on the injured police officer from their vehicle outside the office They were also said to have yelled 'the Prophet has been avenged', during what was France's deadliest post-war terrorist attack. The attackers headed straight for the paper's editor and cartoonist, Stephane Charbonnier, killing him and his police bodyguard. The security had been recruited to protect him after extremists firebombed the offices in 2011 over a satirical cartoon about the Prophet Mohammed. A year later, Mr Charbonnier famously dismissed threats against his life, declaring: 'I would rather die standing than live kneeling.' The militants also killed three other renowned cartoonists – men who had regularly satirised Islam – and the newspaper's deputy chief editor. RELATED ARTICLES Previous 1 2 Next 'I prefer to die than live like a rat': Bravery of slain... Crowds gather in central Paris in solidarity with murdered... Standing together in defiance, thousands gather across... epa04549963 British Prime Minister David Cameron (L) with German Chancellor Angela Merkel (R), during a press conference at 10 Downing Street in London, Britain, 07 January 2015. During her visit to London the two leaders are expected to discuss the economy and EU reforms. EPA/ANDY RAIN Merkel and Cameron given extraordinary joint terror briefing... #JeSuisCharlie sweeps Twitter as Internet users rush to show... A French soldier patrols in front of the Eiffel Tower on January 7, 2015 in Paris as the capital was placed under the highest alert status after heavily armed gunmen shouting Islamist slogans stormed French satirical newspaper Charlie Hebdo and shot dead at least 12 people in the deadliest attack in France in four decades. Police launched a massive manhunt for the masked attackers who reportedly hijacked a car and sped off, running over a pedestrian and shooting at officers. AFP PHOTO / JOEL SAGETJOEL SAGET/AFP/Getty Images Soldiers on the streets: Military is brought in to protect... Obama condemns 'cowardly evil' attack on French newspaper... Charlie Hebdo cartoonist reveals terrorists threatened to... Charlie Hebdo France shooting cartoonist Shooting at headquarters of French satirical magazine Charlie Hebdo in Paris Were they militarily trained? Terrifying footage shows how... Ian Hislop, Editor of Private Eye magazine is reflected in a glass cabinet as he stands in front of a wall of the magazine's front covers, at the V&A Museum, in London, Monday, Oct. 17, 2011. A display to celebrate the magazine's first 50 years is open to the public on Oct. 18 until Jan. 2012. The display shows a collection of drawings, caricatures, cartoons and has a recreation of the magazine's editor's office. (AP Photo/Kirsty Wigglesworth) 'Very little seems funny today': Private Eye editor Ian... Share this article Share 12k shares Despite a shoot-out with armed officers, the gunmen escaped in a hijacked car and remained on the loose this evening. This left the French capital in virtual lockdown as police and soldiers flooded the streets to join the search. The three suspects were tonight said by Metronews to be all French citizens - a homeless teenage man aged 18, and two brothers aged 32 and 34. President Barack Obama offered U.S. help in pursuing the gunmen, saying they had attacked freedom of expression. But it also emerged that the White House had previously criticised Charlie Hebdo in 2012 over its Prophet Mohammed cartoon. At the time it had said that the images would be 'deeply offensive to many and have the potential to be inflammatory'. Packed: Protesters gather during a demonstration at the Old Port of Marseille, southern France, after the shooting in Paris Packed: Protesters gather during a demonstration at the Old Port of Marseille, southern France, after the shooting in Paris Standing together: People hold up pens and posters reading 'I am Charlie' in French as they take part in a vigil in Trafalgar Square, London Standing together: People hold up pens and posters reading 'I am Charlie' in French as they take part in a vigil in Trafalgar Square, London In Germany: People mourn the victims in front of the Brandenburg Gate (centre, background) near the French embassy at Pariser Platz, Berlin In Germany: People mourn the victims in front of the Brandenburg Gate (centre, background) near the French embassy at Pariser Platz, Berlin Gathering: A person holds a placard reading 'I am Charlie' in Clermont-Ferrand, central France, today during a rally in support of the victims Gathering: A person holds a placard reading 'I am Charlie' in Clermont-Ferrand, central France, today during a rally in support of the victims Emergency: Police officers and firefighters gather in front of the offices of Charlie Hebdo in Paris today after gunmen stormed the building Emergency: Police officers and firefighters gather in front of the offices of Charlie Hebdo in Paris today after gunmen stormed the building Critical: Firefighters carry an injured man on a stretcher in front of the offices of French satirical paper Charlie Hebdo after the shooting Critical: Firefighters carry an injured man on a stretcher in front of the offices of French satirical paper Charlie Hebdo after the shooting Faces of the victims: Among the journalists killed were (l to r) Charlie Hebdo's deputy chief editor Bernard Maris and cartoonists Georges Wolinski, Jean Cabut, aka Cabu, Stephane Charbonnier, who is also editor-in-chief, and Bernard Verlhac, also known as Tignous Faces of the victims: Among the journalists killed were (l to r) Charlie Hebdo's deputy chief editor Bernard Maris and cartoonists Georges Wolinski, Jean Cabut, aka Cabu, Stephane Charbonnier, who is also editor-in-chief, and Bernard Verlhac, also known as Tignous Crowds of Parisians gather in homage to shooting victims more videos 1 2 3 4 Watch video Terrifying video shows trained terrorists gunning down... Watch video Harrowing Instagram video captures audio of gunfire in Paris Watch video Adorable moment twin babies lock eyes for the first time Watch video Moment off-duty cop accidentally shoots himself in front of... Watch video Argie-bhaji: Chaotic brawl in curry house caught on camera Watch video Terrifying sounds of gunshots from rooftop above Paris... Watch video Kai the abandoned dog settles in at rehoming centre Watch video Unbelievable moment car drives WRONG WAY round roundabout Watch video Security tight in Cairo for Orthordox Christmas celebrations Watch video Cat thoroughly unimpressed as Bulldog puppy drags her bed Watch video The shocking moment a cameraman is hit by a Ducati motorbike Watch video Skydivers lucky to be alive after emergency landing on beach Terrifying video shows trained terrorists gunning down police more videos 1 2 3 4 Watch video Terrifying video shows trained terrorists gunning down... Watch video Harrowing Instagram video captures audio of gunfire in Paris Watch video Adorable moment twin babies lock eyes for the first time Watch video Moment off-duty cop accidentally shoots himself in front of... Watch video Argie-bhaji: Chaotic brawl in curry house caught on camera Watch video Terrifying sounds of gunshots from rooftop above Paris... Watch video Kai the abandoned dog settles in at rehoming centre Watch video Unbelievable moment car drives WRONG WAY round roundabout Watch video Security tight in Cairo for Orthordox Christmas celebrations Watch video Cat thoroughly unimpressed as Bulldog puppy drags her bed Watch video The shocking moment a cameraman is hit by a Ducati motorbike Watch video Skydivers lucky to be alive after emergency landing on beach Meanwhile, horrific footage emerged showing an injured police officer slumped on the pavement as two gunmen approached him outside the office. In an apparent desperate plea for life, the officer is seen slowly raising his hand towards an attacker, who shoots him in the head at point-blank range. Despite a fierce firefight with police, the men got away in a hijacked car, and, within an hour of the atrocity, appeared to have vanished without trace. France raised its security alert to the highest level and reinforced protective measures at houses of worship, stores, media offices and transportation. President Francois Hollande called the bloodbath a 'barbaric attack against France and against journalists' and vowed to hunt down those responsible. Jacques Myard, French MP with opposition party UMP (Union for a Popular Movement), said: 'We knew something would happen. 'The (security) services used to say to us it's not if but when and where. We know that we are at war. 'The Western nations - like Britain, France, Germany - we are at war.' The Queen today sent her 'sincere condolences to the families of those who have been killed' in the attack. And Prime Minister David Cameron described the murders as 'sickening'. Terrifying sounds of gunshots from rooftop above Paris offices more videos 1 2 3 4 Watch video Terrifying video shows trained terrorists gunning down... Watch video Harrowing Instagram video captures audio of gunfire in Paris Watch video Adorable moment twin babies lock eyes for the first time Watch video Moment off-duty cop accidentally shoots himself in front of... Watch video Argie-bhaji: Chaotic brawl in curry house caught on camera Watch video Terrifying sounds of gunshots from rooftop above Paris... Watch video Kai the abandoned dog settles in at rehoming centre Watch video Unbelievable moment car drives WRONG WAY round roundabout Watch video Security tight in Cairo for Orthordox Christmas celebrations Watch video Cat thoroughly unimpressed as Bulldog puppy drags her bed Watch video The shocking moment a cameraman is hit by a Ducati motorbike Watch video Skydivers lucky to be alive after emergency landing on beach At large: The gunmen are seen near the offices of the French newspaper Charlie Hebdo before fleeing in a car. They remain on the loose At large: The gunmen are seen near the offices of the French newspaper Charlie Hebdo before fleeing in a car. They remain on the loose Forensic experts examine the car believed to have been used as the escape vehicle by gunmen who attacked the Charlie Hebdo office Forensic experts examine the car believed to have been used as the escape vehicle by gunmen who attacked the Charlie Hebdo office A truck tows the car apprently used by armed gunmen who stormed the Paris offices of satirical newspaper Charlie Hebdo, killing 12 people A truck tows the car apprently used by armed gunmen who stormed the Paris offices of satirical newspaper Charlie Hebdo, killing 12 people Twitter users responded to the Charlie Hebdo massacre with an outpouring of solidarity using the hashtag #jesuischarlie, which is trending online. By 4.15pm, nearly five hours after the attack, it had already been tweeted more than 250,000 times, according to one social analytics website. Guy Verhofstadt, the President of the Alliance of Liberals and Democrats for Europe tweeted: 'A tragic day for the freedom of speech #jesuischarlie.' Marches have also been organised through Paris and London in support of journalistic freedom. As well as the AK47 assault rifles, there were also reports of a rocket-propelled grenade being used in the attack. It took place during the publication's weekly editorial meeting at around 12pm (11am GMT), meaning all the journalists would have been present. A young mother and cartoonist, known as 'Coco', who survived the massacre told how she had let the suspected Al Qaeda killers into the office. Corrine Rey said she had returned from picking up her daughter from a nursery when she was confronted by two armed men wearing balaclavas. 'I had gone to pick up my daughter at day care, arriving in front of the building, where two masked and armed men brutally threatened us,' said Ms Rey. 'They said they wanted to go up to the offices, so I tapped in the code,' said Ms Rey, referring to the digi-code security system on the interphone. A police photographer (partially hidden) works with investigators as they examine the impacts from machine gun fire on a police vehicle A police photographer (partially hidden) works with investigators as they examine the impacts from machine gun fire on a police vehicle A man is carried into an ambulance. Ten people were reportedly in wounded, four critically, in the attack by suspected Al Qaeda militants A man is carried into an ambulance. Ten people were reportedly in wounded, four critically, in the attack by suspected Al Qaeda militants Life-threatening: An injured person is evacuated outside the French satirical newspaper Charlie Hebdo's office Life-threatening: An injured person is evacuated outside the French satirical newspaper Charlie Hebdo's office Ms Rey and her daughter hid under a desk, from where they saw two other cartoonists being executed. 'They shot Wolinski and Cabu,' she said. 'It lasted five minutes. I had taken refuge under a desk.' Ms Rey said the men 'spoke French perfectly' and 'claimed they were 'Al Qaeda terrorists'. Gunmen reportedly told another witness: 'You say to the media, it was Al Qaeda in Yemen.' A police source told the Liberation newspaper the gunmen were asking for the Mr Charbonnier by name, shouting: 'Where is Charb? Where is Charb?' The source added: 'They killed him then sprayed everyone else.' Mr Charbonnier was included in a 2013 'Wanted Dead or Alive for Crimes Against Islam' article published by Al Qaeda propaganda magazine Inspire. The latest tweet published by the newspaper's official Twitter account earlier in the day featured a cartoon of Abu Baghdadi, the leader of Islamic State. In it, he wishes everyone 'good health'. Cartoonists Cabu, Tignous and Wolinski were all also reported dead. Radio France chief executive Mathieu Gilet later announced on Twitter that a contributor, Bernard Maris, was another of the victims. Several people were left critically wounded when terrorists carried out a ‘military-style’ attack on the newspaper office Several people were left critically wounded when terrorists carried out a 'military-style' attack on the newspaper office Shell-shocked: A woman cries outside the office. Witnesses reported hearing loud gunfire and at least one explosion during the attack Shell-shocked: A woman cries outside the office. Witnesses reported hearing loud gunfire and at least one explosion during the attack Trail of destruction: Police inspect the damage after a collision between police cars at the scene during a firefight with Islamic militants Trail of destruction: Police inspect the damage after a collision between police cars at the scene during a firefight with Islamic militants Meanwhile, there were reports of a car explosion outside a synagogue in Sarcelles, in northern Paris, just hours after the Charlie Hebdo attack. The blast, at about 1.30pm GMT, is not thought to be connected to the massacre, according to Paris Metro which quoted the mayor of Sarcelles. Florence Pouvil, a saleswoman at Lunas France on Rue Nicolas Appert, opposite the Charlie Hebdo offices, spoke of her shock at the attack. She told MailOnline: 'I saw two people with big guns, like Kalashnikovs outside our office and then we heard firing. We were very confused. 'There were two guys who came out of the building and shot everywhere. We hid on the floor, we were terrified. 'They came from the building opposite with big guns. It has a bunch of different companies inside. 'Some of our co-workers work there so we were frightened for them. They weren't just firing inside the Charlie Hebdo offices. 'They were firing in the street too. We feared for our lives so we hid under our desks so they wouldn't see us. 'Both men were dressed in black from head to toe and their faces were covered so I didn't see them. 'They were wearing military clothes, it wasn't common clothing, like they were soldiers.' ARE PARIS GUNMEN FROM YEMENI AL QAEDA CELL BEHIND PLANE BOMB PLOTS IN THE U.S. AND BRITAIN? The gunmen being hunted by police over the Charlie Hebdo attack are believed to be from militant group Al Qaeda in the Arabian Peninsula (AQAP). The group was established by Yusef al-Ayeri in 2003 in Saudi Arabia, but was forced to flee to Yemen after a series of attacks drove them back. Yemen's weak government allowed the group to rally and gain members, though they are only thought to have around 400 troops today. While their attacks initially focused on targets in the Middle East, such as an attempted suicide attack on Saudi Minister Prince Mohammed bin Nayef, they quickly spread to Western targets. On Christmas Day in 2009, they were implicated in the underwear bomb plot after Umar Farouk Abdulmutallab was discovered on a Detroit-bound plane trying to detonate liquid explosives in his underpants. The following year AQAP also took responsibility for a plot to blow up two devices hidden inside printer cartridges loaded on to cargo planes travelling from Yemen to the United States. One device was discovered during a stopover at East Midlands Airport in Britain, while another was uncovered in Dubai. According to Stanford University the group is currently lead by Yemen-born Nasser al-Wuhayshi, who is an apprentice of Osama Bin Laden and was imprisoned for a time in Yemen, but escaped in 2006 along with 22 others. The group has a global jihadist agenda. Like ISIS, they aim to create a single Arab caliphate, covering Pakistan Afghanistan, Iraq, Yemen and the Levant - the area encompassing Lebanon, Jordan, Syria and Israel. If today's attack is confirmed as coming from AQAP, it will be the first time the group has used lone-wolf style tactics, in which gunmen act alone or in small groups to attack targets. Officers were involved in a gunfight with the men, who escaped in a hijacked car and sped away from the office towards east Paris Officers were involved in a gunfight with the men, who escaped in a hijacked car and sped away from the office towards east Paris On red alert: After the first shots rang out, it is thought that three policemen on bicycles were the first to respond to the atrocity On red alert: After the first shots rang out, it is thought that three policemen on bicycles were the first to respond to the atrocity Benoit Bringer, a journalist with Agence Premiere Ligne, told the iTele network he saw several masked men armed with machine guns Benoit Bringer, a journalist with Agence Premiere Ligne, told the iTele network he saw several masked men armed with machine guns Carnage: A police official, Luc Poignant, said he was aware of one journalist dead and several injured, including three police officers Carnage: A police official, Luc Poignant, said he was aware of one journalist dead and several injured, including three police officers The New York Times reported that a journalist at the Charlie Hebdo office, who asked not to be named, texted a friend after the attack to say: 'I'm alive. 'There is death all around me. Yes, I am there. The jihadists spared me.' Another witness, Gilles Boulanger, who works in the same building, told Itele: 'A neighbour called to warn me that there were armed men in the building and that we had to shut all the doors. 'And several minutes later, there were several shots heard in the building from automatic weapons firing in all directions. 'So then we looked out of the window and saw the shooting was on Boulevard Richard-Lenoir, with the police. It was really upsetting. You'd think it was a war zone.' French journalist, Stefan De Vries, told Sky News: 'There was protection at the door but they killed the police officers, they executed them and they started shooting in the offices.' An unnamed eyewitness told the BBC World Service: 'When I arrived at the scene it was quite disturbing as you can imagine. There were several corpses on the floor. 'We saw the number of casualties was very high, so we just tried to help as we could - there were a lot of people down on the floor and there was blood everywhere. 'I'm very traumatised by this attack and everything and now we're in psychological hell where we're being attended to by professionals.' Terror: In footage filmed from a rooftop, people are seen running for cover as the gunmen rampage through the building Terror: In footage filmed from a rooftop, people are seen running for cover as the gunmen rampage through the building A picture posted on Twitter appearing to show people taking refuge on the roof of the Charlie Hebdo office A picture posted on Twitter appearing to show people taking refuge on the roof of the Charlie Hebdo office Targeted: A picture posted on Twitter reportedly showing bullets in one of the windows of the Charlie Hebdo offices Targeted: A picture posted on Twitter reportedly showing bullets in one of the windows of the Charlie Hebdo offices Benoit Bringer, a journalist at the scene who works next door, took refuge on the roof of the building, which is in the 11th arrondissement of Paris. He said: 'There were very many people in the building. We evacuated via the roof just next to the office. After around ten minutes we saw two heavily armed, masked men in the street'. Another witness said: 'There was a loud gunfire and at least one explosion. When police arrived there was a mass shoot-out. The men got away by car, stealing a car.' A police official, Luc Poignant, said: 'It's carnage.' After the shooting, hundreds of comments were posted on the Charlie Hebdo Twitter page, with one user, David Rault, writing: 'A sad day for freedom of expression.' Charlie Hebdo's editor-in-chief Gerard Biard escaped the massacre because he was in London. He told France Inter: 'I am shocked that people can have attacked a newspaper in France, a secular republic. I don't understand it. 'I don't understand how people can attack a newspaper with heavy weapons. A newspaper is not a weapon of war.' Harrowing Instagram video captures audio of gunfire in Paris more videos 1 2 3 4 Watch video Terrifying video shows trained terrorists gunning down... Watch video Harrowing Instagram video captures audio of gunfire in Paris Watch video Adorable moment twin babies lock eyes for the first time Watch video Moment off-duty cop accidentally shoots himself in front of... Watch video Argie-bhaji: Chaotic brawl in curry house caught on camera Watch video Terrifying sounds of gunshots from rooftop above Paris... Watch video Kai the abandoned dog settles in at rehoming centre Watch video Unbelievable moment car drives WRONG WAY round roundabout Watch video Security tight in Cairo for Orthordox Christmas celebrations Watch video Cat thoroughly unimpressed as Bulldog puppy drags her bed Watch video The shocking moment a cameraman is hit by a Ducati motorbike Watch video Skydivers lucky to be alive after emergency landing on beach High alert: French soldiers patrol at the Eiffel Tower after the Charlie Hebdo shooting as the militants are hunted across the city High alert: French soldiers patrol at the Eiffel Tower after the Charlie Hebdo shooting as the militants are hunted across the city French soldiers patrol at the Eiffel Tower after a shooting at a French satirical newspaper, in Paris, France, Wednesday, Jan. 7 A French soldier patrols in front of the Eiffel Tower on January 7, 2015 in Paris as the capital was placed under the highest alert status after heavily armed gunmen shouting Islamist slogans stormed French satirical newspaper Charlie Hebdo and shot dead at least 12 people in the deadliest attack in France in four decades. Police launched a massive manhunt for the masked attackers who reportedly hijacked a car and sped off, running over a pedestrian and shooting at officers. AFP PHOTO / JOEL SAGETJOEL SAGET/AFP/Getty Images France reinforced security at houses of worship, stores, media offices and transport after masked gunmen stormed the Charlie Hebdo offices Mr Biard said he did not believe the attack was linked to the newspaper's latest front page, which featured novelist Michel Houellebecq, who has previously sparked controversy with comments about Islam. And he said the newspaper had not received threats of violence: 'Not to my knowledge, and I don't think anyone had received them as individuals, because they would have talked about it. There was no particular tension at the moment.' A visibly shocked French President François Hollande, speaking live near the scene of the shooting, said: 'France is today in shock, in front of a terrorist attack. 'This newspaper was threatened several rimes in the past and we need to show we are a united country. 'We have to be firm, and we have to be stand strong with the international community in the coming days and weeks. 'We are at a very difficult moment following several terrorist attacks. We are threated because we are a country of freedom 'We will punish the attackers. We will look for the people responsible.' Today, Mr Cameron said: 'We stand with the French people in the fight against terror and defending the freedom of the press.' US President Barack Obama has condemned the 'horrific shooting', offering to provide any assistance needed 'to help bring these terrorists to justice'. And United Nations Secretary General Ban Ki-moon said: 'It was a horrendous, unjustifiable and cold-blooded crime. 'It was also a direct assault on a cornerstone of democracy, on the media and on freedom of expression.' The British Foreign Office immediately updated is advice for travellers heading to Pairs, warning: 'There is a high threat from terrorism.' Defiant: Stephane Charbonnier, known by his pen name Charb, was editor of Charlie Hebdo, and gunned down by men with assault weapons Defiant: Stephane Charbonnier, known by his pen name Charb, was editor of Charlie Hebdo, and gunned down by men with assault weapons Mr Charbonnier was named as one of nine men the extreme Islamist group were targetting (pictured centre right). Their photographs were printed alongside the caption 'a bullet a day keeps the infidel away' Tragic: Cartoonist Georges Wolinski was named by officials as one of those shot dead at the offices of Charlie Hebdo Tragic: Cartoonist Georges Wolinski was named by officials as one of those shot dead at the offices of Charlie Hebdo Cartoonist Cabu Bernard 'Tignous' Verlhac was gunned down by terrorists today Lead cartoonist Jean 'Cabu' Cabut (left) was among the 12 massacred by terrorists in Paris today, along with Bernard 'Tignous' Verlhac (right) Radio France chief executive Mathieu Gilet announced on Twitter that a contributor, Bernard Maris (above right) was another of the victims Radio France chief executive Mathieu Gilet announced on Twitter that a contributor, Bernard Maris (above right) was another of the victims Committee to Protect Journalists reacts to Paris attack more videos 1 2 3 4 Watch video Terrifying video shows trained terrorists gunning down... Watch video Harrowing Instagram video captures audio of gunfire in Paris Watch video Adorable moment twin babies lock eyes for the first time Watch video Moment off-duty cop accidentally shoots himself in front of... Watch video Argie-bhaji: Chaotic brawl in curry house caught on camera Watch video Terrifying sounds of gunshots from rooftop above Paris... Watch video Kai the abandoned dog settles in at rehoming centre Watch video Unbelievable moment car drives WRONG WAY round roundabout Watch video Security tight in Cairo for Orthordox Christmas celebrations Watch video Cat thoroughly unimpressed as Bulldog puppy drags her bed Watch video The shocking moment a cameraman is hit by a Ducati motorbike Watch video Skydivers lucky to be alive after emergency landing on beach It added: 'If you're in Paris or the Ile de France area take extra care and follow advice of French authorities.' Luce Lapin and Laurent Leger, who have both worked at Charlie Hebdo, were using Twitter hours before the attack, with the most recent tweet posted by Lapin praising cartoonist Cabu. It read: 'Cabu, a great man! And honest, he doesn't eat foie gras.' While Leger's made a political point about taxes. It said: 'Macron [French ministry of economy] wants more billionaires in France, the same that use tricks for not paying ISF [solidarity tax on wealth].' Mohammed Moussaoui, president of the Union of French mosques, condemned the 'hateful act,' and urged Muslims and Christians 'to intensify their actions to give more strength to this dialogue to make a united front against extremism'. It is believed to be the deadliest attack in France since 1961, when right-wingers who wanted to keep Algeria French bombed a train, killing 28 people. The number of attackers was initially reported to be two, but the French Interior Minister later said security services were hunting three 'criminals'. Bernard Cazeneuve added that Paris had been placed on the highest alert. Security expert Professor Anthony Glees, from the University of Buckingham, said: ‘The French have signally failed to keep their country safe.’ He told MailOnline: ‘We in the great western democracies could now be on the verge of a sustained series of Al-Qaeda-IS attacks, generated by the hold that Islamists have in many places in the world, not least the IS state itself. ‘We cannot appease this movement - we have to win the security war against it and contain it, otherwise big trouble lies ahead. David Cameron condemns barbaric gun attack in Paris more videos 1 2 3 4 Watch video Terrifying video shows trained terrorists gunning down... Watch video Harrowing Instagram video captures audio of gunfire in Paris Watch video Adorable moment twin babies lock eyes for the first time Watch video Moment off-duty cop accidentally shoots himself in front of... Watch video Argie-bhaji: Chaotic brawl in curry house caught on camera Watch video Terrifying sounds of gunshots from rooftop above Paris... Watch video Kai the abandoned dog settles in at rehoming centre Watch video Unbelievable moment car drives WRONG WAY round roundabout Watch video Security tight in Cairo for Orthordox Christmas celebrations Watch video Cat thoroughly unimpressed as Bulldog puppy drags her bed Watch video The shocking moment a cameraman is hit by a Ducati motorbike Watch video Skydivers lucky to be alive after emergency landing on beach Location: Officers were involved in a gunfight with the men, who escaped in a hijacked car and sped away from the office towards east Paris 'We have to be stand strong with the international community': A visibly shocked French President François Hollande arrives at the scene, where he promised to bring those responsible to justice 'We have to be stand strong with the international community': A visibly shocked French President François Hollande arrives at the scene, where he promised to bring those responsible to justice '100 LASHES IF YOU DON'T DIE OF LAUGHTER': HOW CHARLIE HEBDO HAS BECOME A BYWORD FOR ANTI-ISLAMISM Charlie Hebdo has become a byword for offensive statements in France after taking several highly provocative swipes at Islam. The newspaper once named Prophet Mohammed as its guest editor, published cartoons of the holy figure in the nude, and once renamed itself Sharia Hebdo with the cover slogan '100 lashes if you don't die of laughter'. The controversy began in 2006 when the publication reprinted now-infamous cartoons of Prophet Mohammed by Danish artist Kurt Westergaard. When the images originally appeared they lead to days of protests across the Middle East and in Western cities. The decision to reprint the images landed the then-editor in court under anti-terror laws, though he was later acquitted. The Hebdo offices were burned to the ground in 2011 when attackers used Molotov cocktails to start a blaze early in the morning of November 2. There was nobody in the building at the time, and the target was instead thought to be the newspaper's computer system, which was completely destroyed. Riot police were forced to stand guard outside the building for days following the attack, as the editors took a defiant stance, choosing to reprint the cartoon images multiple times. In 2012 they again printed cartoons of the Prophet Mohammed as a deliberately provocative gesture while violent protests were taking place across the Middle East. The following year the newspaper's office again had to be surrounded by riot officers after they published a cartoon booklet depicting the Prohpet naked as a baby and being pushed in a wheelchair. On the final page of the booklet there was a note from the editor, Stephane Charbonnier, saying the images were 'halal' because Muslims had worked on them, and that they were factually accurate as they had been derived from descriptions in the Koran. The satirical publication, widely seen as France's answer to Private Eye, prides itself on a mixture of tongue-in-cheek reporting and investigative journalism. Hebdo's current office building has no notices on the door to prevent a repeat of the attacks that have occurred in the past. In an interview with De Volkskrant in January 2013, Mr Charbonnier revealed he had been placed under constant police protection for four months after one of the cartoon issues was published. He shrugged off criticism that he was only publishing the images to gain notoriety for Hebdo, and insisted that he was instead defending the right to free speech. Mr Charbonnier pointed out that the newspaper had poked fun at feminism, nuclear energy and homeland security, but the Islam issues always attracted the most publicity. Charlie Hebdo was previously attacked with a firebomb in 2011 more videos 1 2 3 4 Watch video Terrifying video shows trained terrorists gunning down... Watch video Harrowing Instagram video captures audio of gunfire in Paris Watch video Adorable moment twin babies lock eyes for the first time Watch video Moment off-duty cop accidentally shoots himself in front of... Watch video Argie-bhaji: Chaotic brawl in curry house caught on camera Watch video Terrifying sounds of gunshots from rooftop above Paris... Watch video Kai the abandoned dog settles in at rehoming centre Watch video Unbelievable moment car drives WRONG WAY round roundabout Watch video Security tight in Cairo for Orthordox Christmas celebrations Watch video Cat thoroughly unimpressed as Bulldog puppy drags her bed Watch video The shocking moment a cameraman is hit by a Ducati motorbike Watch video Skydivers lucky to be alive after emergency landing on beach ‘We need more and better intelligence-led activity at home and we need to defeat the IS state abroad. ‘It's not surprising that so many people in Europe are demonstrating against what they see as the Islamisation of Europe. ‘However, their target should not be the vast majority of European Muslims who want nothing to do with Islamism, but the political movement it has produced. ‘This isn't about religion or faith communities, it's about revolutionary politics and violence and only force can overcome it.’ The offices of the same newspaper were burnt down in a petrol attack in 2011 after running a magazine cover of the Prophet Mohammed as a cartoon character. At the time, the editor-in-chief, Stephane Charbonnier, said Islam could not be excluded from freedom of the press. He said: 'If we can poke fun at everything in France, if we can talk about anything in France apart from Islam or the consequences of Islamism, that is annoying.' Mr Charbonnier, also known as Charb, said he did not see the attack on the newspaper as the work of French Muslims, but of what he called 'idiot extremists'. The cover showed Mohammed saying: '100 lashes if you are not dying of laughter'. This week's Charlie Hebdo also featured the author Houellebecq, whose new novel imagines Muslims taking over the French government in 2022. Inside, there was an editorial, attributed to the Prophet Muhammad, and more cartoons - one showing the Prophet with a clown's red nose. Depiction of the Prophet is strictly prohibited in Islam, but the newspaper denied it was trying to be provocative. A firebomb attack gutted the headquarters of Charlie Hebdo in November 2011 after it put an image of the Prophet Mohammed on its cover. HOW ATTACK ON CHARLIE HEBDO HQ UNFOLDED 10.28am - The satirical magazine updates its Twitter page with a cartoon of Islamic State leader Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi. In it, he wishes everyone 'good health'. 10.57am - The AFP news agency reports shots have been fired at the French weekly magazine, on Boulevard Richard Lenoir. 11.17am - Eyewitness accounts emerge showing the immediate aftermath of the scene. 11.22am - AFP confirms the first death as a result of the shooting. Three minutes later it confirms the death toll has risen to 10. 11.31am - President Francois Hollande is en-route to visit the magazine's offices shortly, officials say 11.36am - The death toll is increased to 11 and then to 12. 11.46am - Paris is put on maximum alert following the attacks. 11.49am - Prime Minister David Cameron condemns the attack: 'The murders in Paris are sickening. We stand with the French people in the fight against terror and defending the freedom of the press.' 11.54am - Mr Hollande, in an address near the scene of the massacre, says the shooting was 'undoubtedly a terrorist attack'. He adds: 'We fight threats and we will punish the attackers.' 11.59am - The first tweet is posted containing the hashtag #JeSuisCharlie in solidarity with the victims, the magazine and its supporters. 12.26pm - French officials confirm gunmen who carried out the attack are still at large. At least two criminals are believed to be involved. 12.38pm - The White House condemns Paris attack in the 'strongest possible terms'. 1.30pm - AFP says dead include three cartoonists and editor-in-chief Stephane Charbonnier, known as Charb. 2.13pm - French internal minister Bernard Cazeneuve says 'three criminals' were involved in the attack. They remain at large. Read more: Attentat à Charlie Hebdo : les trois suspects ont été identifiés – metronews Share or comment on this article 12k shares Blame the politicians who demand we tolerate the in... by mouse 24147 by Taboola Sponsored Links What Did George Brown Do To Become One Of The Youngest UK Multimillionaires?Google Sniper 15 Celebrities Who Are Smart With Their Money…Here Is What (They) DidGoodTips4Wealth In Search of French Polynesia's Famous PearlsPaul Gauguin Cruises by AFAR 10 Most Beautiful Botanical Gardens in the WorldAmerikanki Now Anyone Can Build A Great Website (Even You!)Lifegooroo MOST WATCHED NEWS VIDEOS Previous 1 2 Next Terrifying video shows trained terrorists gunning down... Harrowing Instagram video captures audio of gunfire in Paris Adorable moment twin babies lock eyes for the first time Moment off-duty cop accidentally shoots himself in front of... Argie-bhaji: Chaotic brawl in curry house caught on camera Terrifying sounds of gunshots from rooftop above Paris... 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Met office jetstream graphic Double trouble! TWO Atlantic storms to batter Britain with... Store wars: Asda and Sainsbury's in £450m discounting battle... MOST READ NEWS Previous Next ● ● Comments (5364) Share what you think Newest Oldest Best rated Worst rated View all The comments below have been moderated in advance. Linda Taylor, Coventry, 12 minutes ago Some commentators here suggest we should blame politicians for these types of appalling atrocities but in France and Britain and other democracies we elect our politicians. We, the people, decide who has the political power ... that is if we the people can be bothered to vote ... we know that turnouts are very low in most elections. Many, many people just couldn't be bothered to vote. The murders who committed these crimes do not support democracy or free speech. If we do not vote and engage in free speech then we shall end up with the kind of society enforced by the Taliban, ISIs and Al Qaeda. We, the people, must take responsibility for the kind of society we have. 4 72 Click to rate Very old, Mondovi, 12 minutes ago There are Islamic neighborhoods in Paris that police, which are usually unarmed, cannot go. That is crazy. That needs to be immediately addressed. This is where these terrorists can hole up. There should never be any area in any city that is off limits. The Obama administration has for years cowered to these animals. it is ok to trash Christians, but the WH decries trashing Islam. Why? This soft response is emboldening,these animals. 7 115 Click to rate Vivelo, here, United Kingdom, 12 minutes ago If people don't agree with our way of life, our freedom to express ourselves and our beliefs, why do they come here? Why do they read or watch our media? The people are right in saying we are being attacked. Yes we do interfere in other countries, but 9/10 its to either help the minority or majority of people who are being attacked in their own country. We are not going into countries to try and change them for western expats living there, we go to improve peoples lives even though at times it looks worse. These murders need to be caught and we need to rethink how we punish them. Stay strong France. 1 83 Click to rate card lady, down south, United Kingdom, 12 minutes ago I would say so much , but it's un PC and that's not right is it ??? FREEDOM OF SPEECH ! sometimes people say something you don't like , it's the world . you may not like it , find it funny etc . But it's someone elses point of view .... 0 42 Click to rate Matrix 2, York, United Kingdom, 13 minutes ago So Nick Clegg says we should remain "Tolerant" I wonder if he would still say this if it was his family being killed in cold blood. YOU Nick are a blot on the Human Race. 5 90 Click to rate Emily Browne, London, United Kingdom, 13 minutes ago Any religion, cult, people or things which undermine and seek to destroy democracy must themselves be destroyed and eliminated. No more pandering or excuses 2 91 Click to rate Shad_Moss, Hertfordshire, United Kingdom, 13 minutes ago Ok the newspaper insulted a religion but simple offensive words on a paper do not mean for the killing of people, its barbaric and unhumane and sickening, RIP to the dead. 5 67 Click to rate TardisGirl, Manchester, United Kingdom, 13 minutes ago Rip to those innocents... When will this end? 5 57 Click to rate KATE2013, Melbourne, Australia, 13 minutes ago Religion is a farce, now its a deadly farce. 12 57 Click to rate marcoparko, London, 13 minutes ago I think that politicians should start thinking of their families futures and doing the right thing before it's too late, rather than what their masters want. 0 43 Click to rate Topchessplayer, Bradford, 15 minutes ago The French don't mess about.They are more than capable of dealing with these animal
0–9 25-point program – The Nazi Party platform and a codification of its ideology. 581 Abel autobiography – Weimar period Nazi Party membership data source. A Abkindern – an ironically intended colloquial designation for the cancellation of a marriage loan through the production of offspring. In German, ab means "off" and Kind means "child". SS-Abschnitt – SS district or district headquarters. Abwehr (German for defence) – was a German military intelligence (information gathering) organisation from 1920 to 1944. After 4 February 1938, its name in title was Foreign Affairs/Defence Office of the Armed Forces High Command (Amt Ausland/Abwehr im Oberkommando der Wehrmacht). Adolphe Légalité – derisory nickname for Hitler in social-revolutionary SA circles following the Reichswehr Trial held before the Leipzig Supreme Court in late September 1930. In the eyes of radical National Socialists, Hitler's Legality Oath had conceded too much to his political enemies, in the same way as had the Duke of Orléans, who adopted the name Philippe Égalité during the French Revolution. agrarpolitischer Apparat (aA) – Agrarian Apparatus; Agricultural Affairs Bureau of the NSDAP. Leadership hierarchy: Reichsleitungsfachberater held by Richard Walther Darré; Gaufachberater; Bezirksfachberater; Kreisfachberater; Ortsgruppenfachberater Agents: LVL; Landesfachberater (consultants) Administrative: Hilfsreferenten (staff members); Sachbearbeiter (aides); Hilfsreferenten responsible for day-to-day propaganda campaign Ahnenerbe "Ancestral Heritage" – a think tank established under the patronage of Heinrich Himmler to research the history of the Aryan race and prove its superiority. Ahnenpass (ancestor passport) - an identification card which was supposed to carried by all Germans to demonstrate one's Aryan race lineage. Ahnenschein (genealogical chart) - a document used to show correct Aryan descent. Akademiker (academic) – a member of those professions whose exercise required university study as a prerequisite. The term was avoided because it fostered caste mentality and contradicted the ideal of the Volk community. The proportion of academics from a working-class background increased during the Third Reich, but remained minuscule in actual numbers. a. Kr. – abbreviation of Auf Kriegsdauer, which means "for the duration of the war". It was added to a title to indicate the limited promotion prospects for bureaucrats. Aktion 1005 – ("Action 1005"), also called the Sonderaktion 1005 ("special action 1005") or Enterdungsaktion ("exhuming action"), was the 1942–44 secret Nazi operation for concealing evidence of their own largest mass-killings. Laborers—facetiously called "Sonderkommando 1005" ("special commando/s 1005")—would be taken under guard to a closed death camp to clear the site of structures while a sub-unit, the "Leichenkommandos" (corpse commandos), were forced to exhume bodies from mass graves, burn the remains (usually on timber and iron-rail "roasts"), and sometimes to grind down larger bone pieces in portable bone-crusher mills. Some Einsatzgruppen mass graves were also cleared out. (Note: without the 1005 appended, in the camps the word Sonderkommando (lit. special unit) euphemistically referred to prisoner-laborers generally—they stoked the crematoria, shaved newcomers' hair, processed seized belongings, etc., but were not involved in the exhuming action.) Aktion Reinhard – code name for the deadliest phase of the Final Solution, the creation of purpose-built extermination camps. Thought to be named for RSHA chief Reinhard Heydrich. Aktion T4 – code name for the extermination of mentally ill and handicapped patients by the Nazi authorities. (Named after Tiergartenstraße 4, the address of Nazi Central Office in Berlin.) Aktivismus (activism) – political maxim of National Socialism as a "fighting movement", as opposed to "bourgeois passivity". It was claimed that only through an activist stance had it been possible to "defeat terrorist Marxism". However, that which propaganda ennobled as activism was, especially at the grass-roots level, often only blind action for action's sake. Allbuch (Book of Everything) – National Socialist Germanization of Lexikon. Alles für Deutschland (Everything for Germany) – Motto applied to the blades of uniform daggers worn by the SA and National Socialist Motor Corps (NSKK). Allgemeine SS (general SS) - general overall body of the SS which included full-time, part-time, active, inactive, and honorary members. Alljuda – antisemitic Germanization of the term "international Jewry" that borrowed from the word alldeutsch (all- or pan-German), as in the antisemitic slogan "All-Germany against All-Jewry!" The National Socialists used the word Alljuda to suggest the Allgegenwart (omnipresence) of the Jewish danger and the "world conspiracy of Judaism". Alpenfestung (Alpine Fortress) - the region on the Obersalzberg where Hitler was originally supposed to retreat when conducting the battle against the Allies. Hitler never used the Alpenfestung in this capacity and retreated instead into the bunker in Berlin. Alter Kämpfer "old fighter" – A Nazi Party member who joined the party or a party-affiliated organization before the Reichstag election of September 1930, when the Nazi Party made its electoral breakthrough; or who joined the Austrian Nazi Party or an affiliate before the Anschluss. The first 100,000 members of the Party were eligible to wear the Golden Nazi Party Badge. The "old fighters" tended to be the most extreme anti-Semitics in the party. Altreich – old state or old country; term used after the annexation of Austria in 1938 to refer to that part of Germany that was within the 1937 (pre-annexation) boundaries. Amtsleiter – convener of NSDAP Party committees. They were personally answerable to Hitler. Amtswalter (office steward) – Old German-sounding Nazi synonym for "official" or "civil servant" (Beamter) and therefore the preferred term for professional functionaries of the party and its branches. Those persons working in the state apparatus continued to be called Beamten. Anbauschlacht – Battle for Cultivation. Anschluss (Anschluß) – annexation, in particular the annexation of Austria in March, 1938. Anti-Comintern Pact – the agreement by Germany, Japan and Italy to oppose the Communist International (the Comintern) directed by Josef Stalin and the Soviet Union. anti-semitism- Antisemitism (alternatively spelled anti-semitism or anti-Semitism, also known as judeophobia) is prejudice and hostility toward Jews as a religious, racial, or ethnic group. Not specific to the Third Reich. Arbeit adelt "Labor ennobles" – Motto applied to the blades of uniform daggers worn by officers of the Reichsarbeitsdienst (RAD, the State Labor Service). Arbeit macht frei – "Work will set you free", an old German peasant saying, not invented by the Nazis. It was placed above the gate to Auschwitz by the commandant Rudolf Höß. The slogan which appeared on the gates of numerous Nazi death camps and concentration camps was not "true"; those sent to the camps certainly would not be freed in exchange for their hard labor. Instead they were generally worked to death or exterminated when they could no longer perform labour for the Reich. Arbeitnehmerschaft – workforce. The Nazis took this word to mean both manual and mental workers. "Arbeitertum der Faust und der Stirn" – "Workers of both manual and mental labor", i.e., blue-collar and white-collar workers; the Nazi Party self description as an "all-inclusive workers' party". Arbeitsdienstführer (Labor Service Leader) - an official responsible for labor output and performance in a concentration camp. Arbeitserziehungslager (Workers' Educational Camps) - Camps established for recently released concentration camp inmates; designed to provide additional training for industrial work. Arbeitsschlacht (battle for work) – propaganda term for the totality of measures involved in work creation. Because of its military and activist sound, Battle for Work was one of Hitler's favorite terms until 1937 (the de facto end of unemployment). It was patterned after the Fascist Italian battaglia del grano (battle for grain). Ariernachweis – a Certificate of Descent (to show "Aryan" heritage) (popular name). Aryan – the Germanic "master race" or Übermensch, according to Nazi doctrine Arisierung – "Aryanization", "to make [something] Aryan", i.e., seizure of Jewish property in favour of a non-Jewish German. Asoziale – "asocial" people. During the Nazi era, the word meant "scum", "inferior" people, the ballastexistenzen ("ballast-existences"—dead weight, waste-lives) of the socially marginalized, those considered by the Nazis to be "unwanted". It included the homeless, migrant workers, beggars, vagrants, large families from the lower social strata, families from the edge of town, "like gypsy" migrants, the so-called "work shy", alcoholics, prostitutes and pimps. Gypsies (as they were called by the Nazis) were considered to be "foreign race asoziale". Aufbruch der Nation (a new start for the nation) – nationalist interpretation of the beginning of the First World War; it was adopted by the "National Socialist Revolution" to emphasize the overcoming of the party state and of pluralism. This was a parallel concept to the National Rising (Erhebung). Auslandsdeutsche (Germans in Foreign Countries) - people of Germanic blood who spent their formative years in a German community abroad. Nazi doctrine held that such people were still entitled to the full rights of being German, especially those who remained affiliated with the Fatherland. A considerable number of them were in the United States and Argentina. Auslandsorganisation (AO; Organization for Foreigners) - NSDAP organization tasked to supervise Germans abroad. Ausrichtung (alignment) – favorite NS word, borrowed from military usage, for external and internal "normalization" of the movement's followers. External uniformity of dress corresponded to inner ideological alignment regarding NS goals. Aussenpolitisches Amt (APA; Foreign Policy Office) - NSDAP foreign policy office overseen by Alfred Rosenberg. Autobahnen – The "autobahns", a freeway system planned by the Weimar Republic but constructed by Nazi Germany. The autobahn construction program was enthusiastically implemented by Hitler as a public works project to help fulfill his promise to reduce unemployment. The autobahn system was used as a model for the construction of the United States Interstate Highway System by President Dwight D. Eisenhower, who remarked on the efficiency of the autobahn for military transportation while in Germany as the Supreme Allied Commander of the Allied Expeditionary Force. B Bandenkampfabzeichen – "(Anti-) bandits-struggle badge" : Nazi military uniform award for combat action against partisan guerrillas. The term Banden was used instead of partisans to avoid giving credence to the guerrillas. Bandenbekämpfung – "(Anti-) bandits-struggling" : euphemism for anti- partisan guerrilla warfare. The term Banden was used instead of partisans to avoid giving credence to the guerrillas. See also Bandenkampfabzeichen directly above. In fact, the term of actions "against bandits" was often used in German-occupied Eastern Europe to conceal the killing of the Jewish or Slavic population. Bann, ban – Old German word meaning "area of command authority" (thus, ban-mile). It was revived by the Hitler Youth to designate a division of four to six Stämme (stems), or subbans, led by an HJ Bannführer. The Bann corresponded to the Untergau in the League of German Girls, and to the Jungbann in the Jungvolk. Bayreuther Festspiele – The "Bayreuth Festival", a festival of Wagnerian opera held since 1876 (and still held today) in Bayreuth, Germany. Because of Hitler's love of the music of Wagner, all the leading Party functionaries and their wives were expected to attend the Bayreuth Festival. Hitler said, "Anyone who does not appreciate the music of Wagner cannot understand National Socialism". Befehlshaber der Ordnungspolizei (BDO) – Headquarters of the Order (uniformed) Police. Begleitkommando SS (Escort Guards SS) - military guards (affiliated with the SS) tasked with protecting official government buildings. Bekennende Kirche also Bekenntniskirche – "Confessing Church". The groups of Protestant churches and clergymen that resisted Nazification. Many dissenting pastors in this movement paid the ultimate sacrifice for their disagreement with the regime. Berghof – Adolf Hitler's home in the Obersalzberg of the Bavarian Alps near Berchtesgaden, which he purchased in 1933. Berufskammern – Nazi's professional organizations. Besitzbürgertum (Property-owning Bourgeoisie) - pejorative term used for upper middle class property owning people early in the Nazi regime's existence. Bezirksleiter – NSDAP district leaders. Blechkrawatte – "tin necktie," nickname for the Knight's Cross Blitzkrieg – lightning war – quick army invasions aided by tanks and airplanes. A form of attack generally associated with the German armed forces during the Second World War. Blitzkrieg tactics were particularly effective in the early Nazi campaigns against Poland, France, and the Soviet Union. Blockleiter – lowest official of the NSDAP, responsible for the political supervision of a (city) block, usually 40 to 60 households. Blockwart — see Blockleiter Blumenkriege (Flower Wars) - expression utilized by Joseph Goebbels which described the German diplomatic successes against both Austria and Czechoslovakia when instead of bullets greeting German soldiers, they were showered with flowers in a jubilant display of support. Blutfahne "Blood flag" – An SA flag bloodied in the attempted Beer Hall Putsch in Munich 9 November 1923, and revered by the Nazi Party, used in ceremonies. The flag was supposedly made sacred to the Nazi cause through the blood of early NSDAP martyrs and it was used for dramatic effect and in esoteric rituals whereby Hitler 'consecrated' new party members (particularly at the Nuremberg Rallies) by holding the flag in one hand while touching the new members as they passed by him. It disappeared towards the end of the War and is presumed to have been destroyed. Blutorden – "Blood Order" – The medal instituted by Hitler in March 1934 and awarded to Nazis who took part in the November 1923 Beer-Hall Putsch or persons who were a member of one of its formations by January 1932 (continuous service). In 1938, members who could receive it was expanded to persons who rendered outstanding service to the Party. Further party members who lost their lives in the service of the Party could be awarded it. In June 1942, Reinhard Heydrich (posthumously) was the last to be awarded the medal. This award was one of the highest of the NSDAP and under 6,000 were given. Blut und Boden – "Blood and soil". Slogan adopted by the Nazis; it was originally coined by the German former Social Democrat August Winnig, cfr. his Das Reich als Republik 1918–1928, (Stuttgart and Berlin: Cotta, 1928), pg 3. Blut und Ehre (Blood and Honor) – Motto applied to the blades of some uniform daggers worn by the Hitlerjugend, or Hitler Youth. Blutschande (Blood Shame) - the German word for "incest" which was misappropriated by Hitler and the Nazis, who equated it with the defilement of German racial purity through intermarriage with other non-Germanic races. bodenständiger Kapitalismus – 'home country-orientated capitalism' or 'sedentary capitalism' – productive capitalism, i.e., industry (as opposed to unproductive 'nomadic' capitalism, i.e., financial speculation, believed by the Nazis to be dominated by the Jews) was a Nazi economic concept. Breitspurbahn (broad-gauge railway) – a planned 3,000 mm (9 ft 101⁄8 in) broad-gauge railway, a personal pet project of Adolf Hitler, proposed to run on 3 meter gauge track with double-storey coaches between major cities of Grossdeutschland. Brown Creed – term for Nazism. Braunes Haus – The Brown House—national HQ of the NSDAP in Munich, Germany, opened 1931; Hitler purchased the Barlow Palace which was the old Italian embassy when Bavaria was an independent state. Braunhemden (Brownshirts) – the SA; the leadership obtained khaki colored shirts that were supposed to be sent to the German troops stationed in colonies in Africa prior to World War I, and thus the color brown became symbolic of the Nazi party. Brigadeführer "brigade leader" – an SA and SS rank, equivalent to Brigadier General. Bund Deutscher Mädel (BDM) – NSDAP "League of German Girls," the female branch of the Hitler Youth. It had three million members in 1937. BDM-Werk Glaube und Schönheit – "BDM Belief and Beauty Society" – A special branch of the Bund Deutscher Mädel (League of German Girls) began in January 1938 and open to girls age 17 to 21. Bürgerbräu Keller Attentat (Beer Hall Attempt) - connotes the unsuccessful assassination attempt upon Hitler's life on 8 November 1939 in Munich. Protestant theologian Martin Niemoeller later claimed that the attack was staged by Heinrich Himmler with Hitler's approval to incite the German people towards war. This claim remains unverified. C Carinhall – country estate of Hermann Göring outside Berlin. Named in honor of his first wife Carin Göring (1888–1931). Chef der Deutschen Polizei im Reichsministerium des Innern – (Chief of the German Police in the Reich Ministry of the Interior). Title conferred on Heinrich Himmler by Hitler in June 1936. Traditionally, law enforcement in Germany had been a state matter. In this role, Himmler was nominally subordinate to Interior Minister Frick. However, the decree effectively placed the police under the national control of members of the SS. Chef der Sicherheitspolizei und des SD – (Chief of the Security Police and SD) or CSSD. Title first conferred on Reinhard Heydrich and after his death, Ernst Kaltenbrunner when chief of the Reich Main Security Office (which included the Gestapo, SD and Kripo). Columbia-Haus (Columbia House) - infamous Gestapo prison set up immediately following Hitler's assumption of power in January 1933 which housed political opponents, Jews, and anyone deemed an enemy of the Nazis. Various forms of torture were employed there. Conservative Revolutionary movement – a Weimar period German nationalist literary youth movement. Comintern - abbreviated version of 'Communist International' Christlich-Sozialer Volksdienst or CSVD (Christian Social People's Service) - organization founded by the merger of the two Protestant political groups, the Christlich-soziale Reichsvereinigung (Christian Social Reich Association) and the Christlicher Volksdienst (Christian People's Service) to advocate for the Protestant religious cause. It was dissolved shortly after the Nazis seized power. Cyclon B – Alternative spelling of Zyklon B, trade-name of a cyanide-based insecticide used to kill over one million people (total number of deaths in the Holocaust total about 4 million people in Nazi gas chambers. D Das System – "The System." Derogatory Nazi term for describing the Weimar Republic. "Denn heute gehört uns Deutschland/Und morgen die ganze Welt" – "Today, Germany belongs to us/And tomorrow the entire world", a line from the 1932 song Es zittern die morschen Knochen ("The Frail Bones Tremble") written by Hans Baumann that became the official marching song of the Reichsarbeitsdienst (Reich Labor Service) in 1935. This was loosely translated into English as Today Germany, Tomorrow the World, implying that the Nazis intended to take over the world. Deutsche Arbeiterpartei (DAP) – German Workers’ Party, started by railway workers in Bohemia, Austria and Munich, Germany. These were the starter groups that evolved into the DNSAP and the NSDAP in their respective countries. Deutsche Arbeitsfront (DAF) – The 'German Labour Front' was the Nazi's substitute organisation for trade unions, which had been outlawed on 2 May 1933. Deutsche Ausrüstungswerke (DAW; German Armament Works) - an armaments organization established in 1939 under SS control. Deutschblütig – "German-blooded, of German blood" was a legal term after the Nuremberg Laws, which certified one as a member of the German race. (See below: Fremdblütig) Deutsche Christen – the "de-Judaized" Christian church; those who were "Nazified". They removed the whole Old Testament from the Bible. Deutsche Glaubensbewegung (German Faith Movement) – neo-pagan Church formed under the Third Reich, intended to replace traditional Christian institutions. Deutsche Nationalsozialistische Arbeiterpartei (DNSAP) – the Austrian “German National Socialist Workers’ Party”. Deutsche Reichsbahn – German National Railway. Formed under the Weimar Republic by merging Germany's various railways, and nationalized by the Nazis in 1937. Continued to operate in East Germany until 1994. Deutscher Frauenorden (DFO) – German Women's Order. The leader was Elsbeth Zander. Deutscher Gruß – the "German greeting". Also known as the Hitler salute (Hitlergruß). Used when addressing Hitler, higher-ranking Party, SA or SS officers, or the Reich officials. Imposed on the Armed Forces in lieu of the military salute after the July 20 plot. Deutscher Luftsportverband (DLV) – German Air Sports Association, clandestine predecessor of the Luftwaffe, formed under Hermann Göring in his role of National Kommissar for aviation with former Deutsche Luft Hansa director Erhard Milch as his deputy. Deutscher Nationalismus – "German nationalism", the main core ideological basis of the NSDAP. Deutscher Nationalpreis für Kunst und Wissenschaft – German National Prize for Art and Science, a substitute/rival award to the Nobel Prizes, which the Nazis forbade Germans to accept. Deutscher Orden – German Order, the highest decoration of the Nazi Party; awarded only 12 times, in most cases posthumously. Cynically nicknamed the "Dead Hero Medal." Deutsches Jungvolk – NSDAP-controlled association for boys before they were old enough to enter the Hitler Youth at age 14. Deutsches Kreuz, German Cross – military decoration instituted to bridge the gap between the Iron Cross 1st Class and the Knight's Cross. Awarded in gold for valor in combat and in silver for distinguished service. Deutschland Erwache! – "Germany awake!" a Nazi slogan. It was used on the vexilloids of the SS when they marched in torchlight parades and in the Nuremberg Rallies:  Deutschkunde (Study of German Culture) - formative school subject required as part of the curriculum to train German children about their importance in the world. Deutsches Olympiaehrenzeichen – German Olympic Games Decoration. Given in recognition of individuals who worked on organising the 11th Olympic Games in Berlin and the 4th Olympic Winter Games held in Garmisch-Partenkirchen, 1936. The award came in two classes and was extended to both Germans and foreigners. Deutschlandsender (Transmitter Germany) - the German national radio station during the Nazi era. Deutschland über alles (Germany above all) - catchphrase of the Nazis and title of the German national anthem during the Third Reich. Lyrics for the song were originally written in 1841 by Hoffmann von Fallersleben to a Joseph Haydn melody as a call for German unification, but it became a Nazi rallying call for Aryan Lebensraum and German hegemony. Deutschnationale Volkspartei (DNVP) – German National People's Party, monarchist/nationalist conservatives who were the NSDAP's junior partner in the 1933 coalition government. Instrumental in passing the Enabling Act, but dissolved shortly thereafter. Der Dicke – "The fat one", a contemptuous epithet by Germans used to refer to Reichsmarschall Hermann Göring. "Die Juden sind unser Unglück" – A Nazi slogan: "The Jews are our misfortune." Dienststelle Ribbentrop (Ribbentrop Bureau) - duplicate foreign ministry office set up by Hitler in the spring of 1933 to rival the original German Foreign Office which he distrusted. Following an administrative reshuffling in February 1938, Hitler dissolved the office and made Joachim von Ribbentrop the Reich's Minister of Foreign Affairs. Dolchstosstheorie (Stab-in-the-Back Theory) - theory that the German military defeat during the First World War was the result of political intrigue by the Social Democrats, pacifist traitors, Communists and Jews back in Germany at the expense of the brave soldiers, airman, and sailors fighting abroad. It formed the backbone of Hitler's campaign against the liberal government of Weimar and was widely believed wholeheartedly by conservatives since Germany was never occupied during the fighting. Drang nach Osten – "Drive to the east", the historic German desire to expand eastward. Drittes Reich – Third Reich or "Third Realm". Arthur Moeller van den Bruck coined this term for his book Das Dritte Reich published in 1923. The "Third Reich" was predicted as the next step beyond the "First Reich" (the Holy Roman Empire), 800–1806 beginning with Charlemagne, and the "Second Reich" (the German Empire, 1871–1918). Drittes Zeitalter – The "Three Ages" – a philosophy of history promulgated in 1923 by the German author Arthur Moeller van den Bruck in his book Das Dritte Reich, based on an update of the "Three Ages" philosophy of the medieval philosopher Joachim of Fiore, which the Nazis used to justify their rule. According to Moeller’s update of the ideas of Fiore, the First Reich was the Age of the Father, the Second Reich was the Age of the Son, and there will in the future be established under a strong leader a "Third Reich" which will be the Age of the Holy Ghost in which all Germans will live in a Utopia in peace and harmony with each other. E Eagle's Nest – see Kehlsteinhaus. Edelweiss - code name used for Hitler's directive by Army Group A to attack the Baku oil fields in the Caucasus. Eher Verlag – the Nazi Party's official publishing house made famous through its editions of Mein Kampf and operated by Max Amann. Ehestandsdarlehen (Marriage Loan) - loan provided by the Nazi government to encourage marriage and raise the birthrate of 'Aryan' children in the Third Reich. Ehrenarier – "honorary Aryan" – some people or peoples of non-Aryan ancestry were declared Honorary Aryans because of their service to the Third Reich. Hermann Göring stated, "I will decide who is Aryan". Ehrendolch – lit. "honor dagger", a presentation dagger awarded for individual recognition, especially by the SS. Ehrenfuehrer (Honorary Leader) - title awarded to high-ranking officials in the Nazi hierarchy which included the additional title of SS General. This special distinction was bestowed by Heinrich Himmler to a select handful of individuals to include Martin Bormann and Joachim von Ribbentrop. Ehrenkreuz der Deutschen Mutter – "Cross of Honor of the German Mother"—An award given to German mothers who presented four or more children to the Third Reich. Those who bore four to five children received the bronze Honor Cross, those who bore six to seven children received the silver Honor Cross, and those who bore at least eight children received the gold Honor Cross. Ehrenliste der Ermordeten der Bewegung – Nazi honor roll of those who fought and died for the party before it came to power in January 1933. Ehrenwaffe – Nazi honor weapon worn by NSDAP party leaders who qualified to carry them. Eiche (Oak) - code name of one of the four distinct operations to defend the Italian mainland against the Allied powers. It included the rescue of Mussolini by Otto Skorzeny and his paratroopers from captivity in the Apennines. Eichenlaubträger (Oak leaves dignitary/carrier) - a person awarded the Knight’s Cross with oak leaves. Eigengesetzlichkeit - determined by inner laws as the Germanization of autonomy. Eignungsprüfer (Suitability Examiner) - specialists from the Main Office for Race and Settlement of the SS and/or other medical professionals who evaluated Polish children to assess whether or not their racial worthiness warranted being counted as Germans. This process entailed the examination of a child’s general physique, eye color, hair, and the like. After evaluation, the child was placed into one of several categories; desirable for natural reproduction, tolerable, or undesirable. Eindeutschung (Germanization) - term denoting the process of turning foreign nationals of suitable 'Aryan' or related bloodlines into Germans. Eindeutschungsfähigkeit - term used to describe an individual's suitability for Germanization. Einheitspreisgeschäft - business which sold goods and commodities inside Nazi Germany in accordance with government regulated prices. Eingliederung (Integration) - expression for areas at least partially annexed into the Reich like Alsace-Lorraine or Luxembourg. Ein Volk, ein Reich, ein Führer – "One people, one nation, one leader"; one of the most-repeated slogans of the NSDAP Einsatzbereitschaft (Readiness for Service) - label for the courage and willingness of individual Germans to obey and sacrifice for the Nazi cause. Einsatzgruppen – "Special-operation units" that were death squads under the command of the RSHA and followed the Wehrmacht on the Eastern Front to engage in the systematic killing of mostly civilians, including: Jews, communists, intellectuals, and others. Einsatzkommandos (Task Commandos) - special mobilized units of the Einsatzgruppen tasked with eliminating Communists, partisans, Jews, and saboteurs on the Eastern Front. Einsatz Reinhard (Mission/Action "Reinhard") - code name given on 4 June 1942 for the assignment to exterminate all Polish Jews in honor of SS Deputy Chief Reinhard Heydrich who had been assassinated during a covert operation. Einsatzstab Reichsleiter Rosenberg für die Besetzen Gebiete, "Reichsleiter Rosenberg Institute for the Occupied Territories" – principal authority for the looting of artwork and cultural treasures from occupied countries. Einsatztrupp (Troop Task Force) - smallest of the Einsatzgruppen units responsible for liquidations in the German occupied territories. Eintopf (One Pot Meal) - term propagandized by the Nazis to encourage Germans to eat a one-pot meal on a weekly basis to conserve food (especially meat) for the good of the greater Reich. "Eintopf, das Opferessen des Reiches" was an expression often used which meant: "A one-pot meal, the sacrificial meal for the Reich." Einwanderungszentralstelle (EWZ; Central Immigration Office) - Organization established in 1939 and directed by Reinhard Heydrich which managed the disbursement of property and assets of exterminated or deported Jews and non-Jewish Poles to members of the Germanic people (Volksdeutsche) for their use instead. Eiserne Faust (Iron Fist) - right-wing political association originally based in Munich where Hitler met his erstwhile 'comrade in arms' Ernst Röhm, who was later assassinated at Hitler's order. Eiserne Kreuz, Iron Cross – Originally a Prussian royal military decoration for valor or combat leadership, revived by Hitler in 1939. There were three grades, the Iron Cross, Knight's Cross (Ritterkreuz) and Grand Cross (Grosskreuz); the basic grade was awarded in two degrees, 2nd and 1st Class. Holders of the 1914 Iron Cross were awarded a device (Spange) to be worn with the original decoration in lieu of a second medal. Endlösung – "final solution", short for "final solution to the question" (or "... problem"), a Nazi euphemism for what later became known as the Holocaust. Use of the phrase "final solution", even in non-Nazi contexts, e.g., "the final solution of a mathematics problem" is frowned upon in modern Germany. Note: It is important when reading books about the Third Reich that were published before 1978 to remember that the term "Holocaust", although it had been used before 1978 in some newspaper articles and by some Jewish and other intellectuals, did not become the general term used among the general population to refer to this genocide until after the appearance of the Holocaust TV miniseries in 1978. For example, William Shirer's 1961 book Rise and Fall of the Third Reich uses the term "the final solution" in quotes; the word "Holocaust" is not mentioned. Endlösung der Judenfrage – "final solution to the Jewish question"; see Endlösung, above. Endsieg – "final victory"; referring to the expected victory in World War II. Nazi leadership spoke of the "final victory" as late as March 1945. Entartete Kunst – degenerate art; term used as the title of an art show consisting of modern art and other "degenerate" art, which was contrasted with Nazi propagandistic Nazi art. This term also included entartete Musik or music that was considered non-German like Jazz, modern music, and any music composed by Jews. Enterdungsaktion – ("Exhuming action"), also called the Sonderaktion 1005 ("special action 1005") or Aktion 1005 ("Action 1005"). See above Aktion 1005. Entjudung (Dejudaization) - freeing things from all forms of Jewish influence, or the removal of Jews entirely. Entpolnisierung (Depolonization) - term employed for the clearing of racially Polish people and Jews from Poland, accomplished through the use of exploitative slave labor and mass murder. Entnazifizierung (Denazification) - post-war terms used to describe the process of removing all semblance of Nazi influence from the surviving German people. Commanders in the respective Russian, British, French, and American zones of Germany removed (to the extent possible) all former Nazis in leading positions and established 5 distinctive categories for the Nazis: (1) major offenders - those persons who committed major crimes, to be sentenced to life in prison or death; (2) activists, militarists, or profiteers - sentenced to a maximum of ten years imprisonment; (3) lesser offenders - those who deserved some form of leniency, generally sentenced to a probation period of two-three years; (4) followers - those who nominally supported the Nazi regime, subject to surveillance; (5) exonerated persons - persons who at some point actively or passively resisted the Nazis and suffered oppression under the regime. Erbgesundheitsgerichte (Hereditary Health Courts) - courts which often determined whether or not to sterilize individuals in Nazi Germany. Erbhöfe — hereditary; farms labelled as such were guaranteed to remain with the same family in perpetuity. Erbhofgesetz – the 1933 NSDAP hereditary farm law; it guaranteed family farm holdings of three hundred acres (1.2 km²) or less. Erlaß des Führers und Reichskanzlers zur Festigung deutschen Volkstums - Decree of the Führer and Reich Chancellor concerning the Strengthening of German Nationality. Ermächtigungsgesetz – "Law to Relieve the Distress of the People and State"; Enabling Act of March 23, 1933, which had the effect of suspending the Weimar Constitution and granting Hitler dictatorial powers. Ernährungsschlacht - the battle for food supplies. Ersatz – a substitute product. Germany did not have an easy access to some strategic materials. German scientists had to research how to produce artificial rubber (Buna), and coffee made from roasted acorns, for example. Gasified coal was manufactured to create an artificial petroleum-like product to fuel vehicles. In a military context used to refer to replacement troops, e.g., Ersatzabteilung "replacement battalion." Erzeugungsschlacht – Battle for Production. Euthanasiebefehl (Euthanasia Order) - Hitler's secret order issued in the fall of 1939 which empowered medical professionals to review a patient's overall health status to determine whether or not they would be euthanized. Those who were terminally-ill, mentally handicapped or otherwise a financial burden to the German state were put to death under this order. Evakuierungslager (Evacuation Camp) - camps where Jews were sometimes held before being sent to any of the various concentration camps throughout the Greater Reich. F Fahneneid (Flag Oath) - oath of allegiance sworn to Hitler by members of the German military. Fahnenweihe (Consecration of the Flag) - yearly ritual Hitler during which Hitler consecrated new Party flags by touching them against the 'blood flag' from the Munich Beer-Hall Putsch. Fall Madagaskar (Case Madagascar) - Nazi plan to expel Jews from Europe and resettle them on Madagascar Island off the southeast coast of Africa. It never came to fruition. Feindhörer (Listener to Enemy Broadcasts) - people who illegally listened to Allied and other enemy broadcasts during the war. Feldgendarmerie – Field Gendarmerie or Field Police, the military police units of the Wehrmacht. Feldherrnhalle – loggia on the Odeonsplatz in Munich; site of the violent climax of the 1923 Beer Hall Putsch. Used as the name of an SA Standarte, which eventually grew into the Panzer Corps Feldherrnhalle. Festigung deutschen Volkstums (Strengthening of the German Nationality) - descriptive term for the deportation and mass murder of Jews and Poles across Poland and occupied Europe for the sake of making room for people of German blood. Festung Europa (Fortress Europe) - expression used to describe all territory within German-occupied Europe and that of Germany’s allies which was to be held at all costs. Flaggenerlass or Flaggenerlaß (Flag Order) - decree to display the Nazi flag in churches throughout Germany and Europe. Die Fliegerstaffel des Führers, the special VIP transport squadron for Hitler's air transport needs, primarily involving his personal pilot Hans Baur. Forschungsabteilung Judenfrage - Research Branch for the Jewish Problem. Frauenabteilung - Women’s labor branches which promoted and supported the integration of women into the workforce. Frauenhilfsdienst für Wohlfahrts- und Krankenpflege - Women’s Aid Service for Welfare and Health Care. Frauenkonzentrationslager (FKL) - Women’s concentration camp Fraktur – a fashion of blackletter popularly associated with Nazi Germany, though the blackletter typefaces were banned by Hitler in 1941 on the grounds that it was Jewish. Fremdblütig (alien-blooded) – a term for persons of "non-Aryan" heritage, who were not German-blooded. Fremdmoral (alien morality) – a term for moral principles that do not originate with one's own "species" (Artung), and thus undermine "species-specific" (arteigene) ethics. For the "Nordic" person, for example, Christian morality was a typical alien morality. Fremdvölker (Foreign Peoples) - descriptive terms for foreigners, or those of non-Aryan blood who were considered alien to the German population. Frontgemeinschaft – front line community. It was termed for the solidarity felt by the German soldiers of World War I in the trench warfare. Führer – leader. Adolf Hitler was called "Der Führer". Also an early SA and SS rank, later changed to Sturmführer. Führerbefehl – "the leader's orders"; special directives personally issued by Hitler himself. These were considered the utmost unbreakable orders in the Third Reich, the last of which was to defend Berlin at all cost (and resulting in the suicides of the most fanatical followers). Führerbunker – (literally meaning "shelter [for the] leader" or "[the] Führer's shelter") was located about 8.2 metres beneath the garden of the old Reich Chancellery building at Wilhelmstraße 77, and about 120 metres north of Hitler's New Reich Chancellery building in Berlin. This underground bunker was Hitler's last FHQ. Further, it is where Hitler and his wife Eva Braun spent the last few weeks of the war and where their lives came to an end on 30 April 1945. Führerhauptquartiere (FHQ), a number of official headquarters especially constructed for use by the Führer. Führerprinzip – the "leader principle", a central tenet of Nazism and Hitler's rule, based on absolute hierarchical authority and unquestioning obedience. Führersonderzug – Hitler's special command train, functioning as Führer headquarters when on board Führerstaat – the concept of Hitler's dictatorship of one-man rule. Führerstadt – title bestowed on five different German and Austrian cities (Berlin, Munich, Hamburg, Linz, and Nuremberg) which were to undergo major architectural reconstruction. SS-Führungshauptamt – SS Leadership Head Office, the administrative headquarters of the Waffen-SS. G Gau, pl. Gaue – NSDAP regional districts which functioned as the de facto administrative organization of Nazi Germany from 1935 to 1945. Further subdivided into: Bezirke – districts Kreise – counties or subdistricts; smaller units of the Bezirk Ortsgruppen – Party branch or local branches. It took a minimum of fifteen members to be recognized Hauszellen – tenement cells Straßenzellen – street cells Stützpunkte – strong points Gauführer – very early SA and SS rank, indicating the SA or SS leader for a Gau; renamed Oberführer in 1928. Gauleiter – the head of a Gau or of a Reichsgau. They had to swear unconditional personal loyalty to the Führer and were directly answerable to him. Gau-Uschla – the level of the four-tiered Uschla system immediately below the Reichs-Uschla and immediately above the Kreis-Uschla. Gefrierfleischorden – ("Frozen flesh order" / frozen meat medal) Trench humor nickname for the service medal awarded for fighting on the Russian front. The decoration's official name was Die Medaille Winterschlacht Im Osten usually just shortened to Ostmedaille (East medal). Geheime Feldpolizei (GFP) – Secret Field Police. It was Germany's secret military police that was organised by the German high command (OKW) in July 1939 to serve with the Wehrmacht. It was mainly designed to carry out security work in the field, as the executive agent of the Abwehr. Geheime Staatspolizei (Gestapo) – Secret State Police. Originally the Prussia secret state police and later (as part of the SiPo then merged into the RHSA) the official secret police of Nazi Germany. Gestapo was derived as follows: Geheime Staatspolizei. Gekrat – Either the Charitable Ambulance LLC or one of its distinctive gray buses. The actual purpose of such euphemistically named "charitable ambulances" was to send sick and disabled people to the Nazi killing centers to be murdered under the Action T4 eugenics program. Gekrat is an abbreviation of the company name: Gemeinnützige Krankentransport GmbH. Geltungsjude Gemeinnutz geht vor Eigennutz – "The common good before the private good"; Rudolf Jung popularized it in his book Der Nationale Sozialismus, 1922, 2nd edition. This became Hitler's basic stance on the subordination of the economy to the national interest. (6) Gemeinschaftsfremde-"Community Alien". Anyone who did not belong to the Volksgemeinschaft. Generalgouverneur – Governor-general. Leader of the civil administration of the Generalgouvernement. Generalgouvernement (General Government) – official designation for the parts of pre-war Poland that were not directly incorporated into the Großdeutsches Reich, but were otherwise placed under a totally German-ruled civil government. Generalgouvernement für die besetzten polnischen Gebiete – (General Government for the occupied Polish territories) – complete title for the above-mentioned Generalgouvernement from 1939 to 1941. Note that this name did not signify the existence of a military government. Genickschuss – "nape shoot", a method of execution. Genickschussanlage – "neck shooting facility", the official name of a facility used for surprise executions. Germania – Officially Welthauptstadt (world-capital-city) Germania (Latin term for Germany): the name Hitler wanted for his proposed world capital city of Berlin—implying planned German dominance of much of the planet. Hitler began sketching grand buildings, memorials, and broad avenues in the 1920s. Architectural model, redevelopment plans, and structural testing by Albert Speer, forced evictions, and preliminary demolitions got underway in the mid-late 1930s. Wartime needs sidelined the project. (Germania was also a the name of the second regiment of the SS-Verfügungstruppe). Gleichschaltung – the restructuring of German society and government into streamlined, centralized hierarchies of power, with the intention of gaining total control and co-ordination of all aspects of society. Duke University’s notable historian, Claudia Koonz, described the institutionalized Gleichschaltung of the National Socialist government as comprehensive in scope and depth. For the Nazis, Gleichschaltung meant absolute unequivocal conformity and obedience. Such uniform programming of thought was part propaganda induced, partly the result of the Gestapo enforcement mechanism, and part social pressure from every direction; it was of paramount importance to act uniformly if one wanted to remain a member of the Volksgenossen. Goldfasanen ("golden pheasants") – derogatory term Germans used for high-ranking Nazi Party members. The term derived from the brown and red uniforms with golden insignia worn at official functions and rallies by party members that resembled the brilliant colours of a male pheasant. Goose step (Stechschritt) – a ceremonial marching form of many countries. The form consists of stepping forward without bending the knees. After the Nazis' use of it in their parades it was later used when referring to other totalitarian governments. Still used by some countries today. Goralenvolk, the Gorals of southern Poland and northern Slovakia, who were considered a separate ethnic group, said to be Slavicized ethnic Germans. Gottgläubiger [lit. "believer in God"], those who broke away from Christianity but kept their faith in a higher power or divine creator. The term implies someone who still believes in God, although without having any religious affiliation. Like the Communist Party in the USSR, the Nazis were not favorable toward religious institutions, but unlike the Communists, they did not promote or require atheism on the part of their membership. Gott mit uns "God with us" – traditional Prussian military motto, worn on the belt buckles of the Wehrmacht. Grand Cross – see Großkreuz des Eisernen Kreuzes Gröfaz – mocking acronym for Größter Feldherr aller Zeiten ("greatest general of all time"), an appellation of Hitler. Großdeutsches Reich "Greater German Domain" – the official state name of Germany from 1943 to 1945; earlier used to refer to pre-1938 Germany (the Altreich) plus Austria and other annexed territories. Großgermanisches Reich "Greater Germanic Domain" – the official state name of the expanded empire that Germany's war aims set out to establish within Europe in World War II. Großkreuz des Eisernen Kreuzes, Grand Cross of the Iron Cross – Germany's highest military decoration. Established in two degrees, the Grand Cross and the Star of the Grand Cross; the former was awarded only once under the Third Reich, to Göring, and the latter never. Großraumwirtschaft – continental economic zone similar to Lebensraum. Großtraktor "large tractor" – code name for the Reichswehr's clandestine heavy tank design. Gruppenführer "group leader" – an SA and SS rank, equivalent to (US/UK) Major General. H Hakenkreuz 'hooked cross' – swastika. Halsschmerzen "sore throat" or "itchy neck" – used of a reckless or glory-seeking commander, implying an obsession with winning the Knight's Cross Hauptscharführer "chief squad leader" – an SS rank, the highest enlisted grade in the Allgemeine-SS, equivalent to Master Sergeant. Hauptsturmführer "chief storm leader" – an SS rank, equivalent to Captain. Haupttruppführer "chief troop leader" – an SA and early SS rank, the highest enlisted grade in the SA, equivalent to Sergeant Major. Heer – the Army. Not specific to the Third Reich. Heim ins Reich – slogan standing for a policy which strove to integrate Austria and other territories with ethnic Germans into Greater Germany. Heimat – the 'homeland' of the German volk (i.e., The Greater German Reich). Not specific to the Third Reich. Heimatvertriebene – Germans expelled from their homeland. Heimtückegesetz – 1934 law establishing penalties for abuse of Nazi badges and uniforms and restricting freedom of speech. "Hermann Meyer" – derogatory nickname for Luftwaffe chief Hermann Göring, after his intemperate boast that "if one bomb falls on Berlin, you can call me 'Meyer'!" Herrenvolk/Herrenrasse 'people/race of lords' – The master race. HIAG (German: 'Hilfsgemeinschaft auf Gegenseitigkeit der Angehörigen der ehemaligen Waffen-SS, literally "Mutual Help Association of Former Waffen-SS Members") was an organization founded in 1951 by former members of the Waffen-SS. HIB-Aktion – "Into-the-Factories Campaign"; a part of the Nazi campaign to recruit factory workers. Hitlerism is another term for Nazism used by its opponents. Hitlerproleten – "Hitler's proletariat"; what the Berlin working class Nazis called themselves (to distinguish themselves from the rest of the proletariat). (8) Hitler Youth (Hitlerjugend) – The German youth organization founded by the Nazi Party (NSDAP). Made up of the Hitlerjugend proper, for male youth ages 14–18; the younger boys' section Deutsches Jungvolk for ages 10–13; and the girls' section Bund Deutscher Mädel (BDM). From 1936 membership in the HJ proper was compulsory. Hoheitsabzeichen, or more specific Hoheitsadler or Reichsadler – national insignia (eagle and swastika). See Federal Coat of Arms of Germany. Horst-Wessel-Lied – The "Horst Wessel Song", also known as Die Fahne hoch ("The Flag Up High") from its opening line, was the anthem of the Nazi Party from 1930 to 1945. From 1933 to 1945 the Nazis made it a co-national anthem of Nazi Germany, along with the first stanza of Deutschlandlied. I IG Farben was a German chemical industry conglomerate. Its name is taken from Interessen-Gemeinschaft Farbenindustrie AG (Syndicate [literally, "community of interests"] of dye-making corporations) Illustrierter Beobachter – NSDAP national tabloid. Iron Cross – see Eiserne Kreuz Istjude J Judenfrei – areas "liberated" (i.e., ethnically cleansed) from any Jewish presence. German for "free of Jews". Judenknecht – "servant of the Jews". Gentile individuals, groups or states opposing Nazi Germany. Judenrampe – "Jews ramp". At death camps and concentration camps, the rail platform for unloading newly arrived (usually Jewish) internees. Judenrat – Jewish council. The Gestapo established Judenräte (the plural) in ghettoes to have them carry out administrative duties. Judenrein – areas from which any trace of a Jewish bloodline would have been completely eradicated. German for "cleansed of Jews". Jüdische Grundspekulationsgesellschaften – Hitler's slang term for Jewish property speculation companies. July 20 Plot – failed attempt on 20 July 1944 to assassinate Hitler and overthrow the Nazi regime, by Army officers led by Oberst i. G. Claus von Stauffenberg and Generaloberst Ludwig Beck; see Operation Valkyrie. K Kameradschafts- und Gemeinschaftsstärkung – strengthening of comradeship and community; Nazi party Gleichschaltung of social institutions. Kampfzeit – "Struggle time". The NSDAP's term for the years between 1925 and 1933 in political opposition. Much glorifed after 1933 as the heroic period of the NSDAP. Kapo (Cabo) – A privileged prisoner-work-squad leader, within the concentration camps, labor camps, and death camps; an overseer of the Sonderkommando laborers. Oftentimes criminals sent to the camps were assigned kapo duty. While on duty, they would often be issued a whip or nightstick. Generally they had a reputation for brutality. Kdf-Wagen – official name of the Type I Volkswagen Beetle, a project of the Kraft durch Freude program. Kehlsteinhaus – The "Eagle's Nest," Hitler's summerhouse atop a mountain overlooking Obersalzberg, near Berchtesgaden. Not to be confused with the Berghof. Kinder, Küche, Kirche – "Children, Kitchen, Church" (part of Hitler's co-ordination of every aspect of life to a state-sponsored orthodoxy) – slogan delineating the proper role of women in the Nazi State. Hitler said, "National Socialism is a male movement." Kirchenkampf – "church struggle" – see Kirchenkampf Knight's Cross – see Ritterkreuz. Kommandantur – German for Head Quarters. By metonymy, during the war it designated in occupied countries both the commands themselves, the buildings where they were located (often in castles or luxury hotels or other grand buildings), and the territories of different administrative levels under their control. Kontinentalimperium – German World War II aim for achieving continental hegemony by territorial expansion into Eastern Europe. Contrast Kolonialimperium, the exclusive aim for an overseas imperial domain. Konzentrationslager often abbreviated KZ for concentration camp. The correct abbreviation would be KL, but KZ was chosen for the tougher sound. Concentration camps were established for the internment of those who were declared "enemies of the volk community" by the SS. Kraft durch Freude (KdF) – "strength through joy", state-sponsored programs intended to organize people's free time, offering cheap holidays, concerts, other leisure activities, and (unsuccessfully) a car (Kdf-Schiff, Kdf-Wagen). It was initially called Nach der Arbeit. Kreditschöpfungstheorie – Gregor Strasser's idea for government spending and credit creation. Kreis-Uschla – an intermediate level of the four-tiered Uschla system, immediately below the Gau-Uschla and immediately above the lowest-level Ort-Uschla. Kriegserlebnis – (myth of the) war experience. Kriegsmarine, "War Navy", one of the three official branches of the Wehrmacht. Kriegsverdienstkreuz "War Merit Cross" – decoration for exceptional service not involving combat valor as was required for the Iron Cross. Awarded in three grades, 2nd Class, 1st Class, and Knight's Cross; with swords for frontline soldiers and without for rear-area personnel and civilians. Kriegsverdienstmedaille "War Merit Medal" – decoration for meritorious civilian service to the war effort, generally awarded to factory workers. Kriminalpolizei (Kripo) – "Criminal Police" – In Nazi Germany, it became the national Criminal Police Department for the entire Reich in July 1936. It was merged, along with the Gestapo into the Sicherheitspolizei (SiPo). Later in 1939, it was folded into the RSHA. The Kripo was also known as the "Reich Criminal Police Department" or RKPA. Kristallnacht or Reichskristallnacht – Crystal Night; refers to the "Night of Broken Glass", November 9–10, 1938, when mob violence against Jewish people broke out all over Germany. Kunstbolschewismus (Art Bolshevism) – derogatory catchword of Nazi propaganda, directed against modern and socially critical art. The term was applied by Hitler himself to painting, in particular: "The Bolshevism of art is the only possible cultural life form and spiritual expression of Bolshevism"; thus, the "officially recognized art" in Bolshevist states was represented by the "sickly outgrowths of insane and debilitated people that we have come to know since the turn of the [20th] century as Cubism and Dadaism" (Mein Kampf). Also see: Kulturbolschewismus (Cultural Bolshevism). L Lagerbordell – "Camp bordello" : a camp's on-site brothel where female forced sex workers were kept as a work-incentive for some Kapos and other favored prisoners. Landwirtschaftliche Gaufachberater – NSDAP agricultural conventions; first one held on February 8, 1931. They held Bauernkundgebungen (farmer's rallies). Landwirtschaftliche Vertrauensleute (LVL) – NSDAP agrarian agents; used to infiltrate other agricultural/husbandry/rural organizations to spread Nazi influence and doctrine. Landwirtschaftlicher Fachberater – expert consultant on agriculture that was assigned to every NSDAP Gau and Ort unit. Landwirtschaftlicher Schlepper "agricultural hauler" – code name for the Reichswehr's clandestine light tank design; forerunner of the Panzer I. Lebensborn – "Fountain of Life"; an SS organization founded by Himmler and intended to increase the birth rate of "Aryans" by providing unmarried mothers shelter in nursing homes so that they would not seek (illegal) abortions. Lebensraum – "Living space", specifically living space for ethnic Germans and generally referring to territories to be seized in Eastern Europe; see Drang nach Osten. Lebensunwertes Leben – ("Life unworthy of life") Term used for people with incurable mental health problems, serious birth defects and other health issues. Leibstandarte SS Adolf Hitler (LSSAH) – Hitler's SS bodyguard regiment, originally commanded by Sepp Dietrich. By mid-1943 it had grown into a full Waffen-SS Panzer division known as "1st SS Panzer Division Leibstandarte SS Adolf Hitler". Leichttraktor "light tractor" – code name for the Reichswehr's clandestine medium tank design. Leistungsgemeinschaft – performance community; part of the Nazi Gleichschaltung of social institutions. Lufthansa – Deutsche Luft Hansa Aktiengesellschaft, German Air Hansa Inc. German national airline, founded in 1926. Not the legal predecessor to today's Lufthansa. Luftwaffe – "air force." The Wehrmacht air arm was officially founded 26 February 1935. Today the air arm of the Bundeswehr. Legion Condor – German Army and Air Force "volunteers" sent to fight on the Nationalist side in the Spanish Civil War. M Mann – lowest rank in the SA and Allgemeine-SS, equivalent to Private. Männerbund – bond of men; it was a distinctly masculine mystique which became an essential part of SA ideology (see male bonding). Märzveilchen – "March Violets." Those who joined the NSDAP after the Reichstag elections of March 1933. Generally, the “March Violets” were assumed to join the Party for opportunistic reasons only and were held in contempt by the Old Fighters. Also called Märzgefallene or "March casualties." Mehr sein als scheinen "Be more than you appear to be." – Motto applied to blades of uniform daggers worn by the Nationalpolitsche Erziehungsanstalten, or NPEA, the National Political Educational Establishment. Mein Kampf – "My Struggle", Adolf Hitler's autobiography and political statement. Meine Ehre heißt Treue "My honor is loyalty" – Motto applied to the belt buckles and the blades of uniform daggers worn by the Schutzstaffel, or SS. Militärbefehlshaber – military Governor, who was the (single) head of the executive in an occupied country (when no Reichskommissar was appointed). Mischling – used in reference to an individual with alleged partial Jewish ancestry; some were treated as full-blooded Jews, others where subject to various restrictions. "Mit brennender Sorge" – A letter by Pope Pius XI warning against the Nazis. Muselmann – "an inmate who had resigned himself to death and lost the will to do anything to help himself survive". (1) Mutterkreuz—see Ehrenkreuz der Deutschen Mutter. N Nacht und Nebel – "Night and fog", code for some prisoners that were to be disposed of, leaving no traces. Nationalpolitische Erziehungsanstalt – the National Political Educational Establishment, or NPEA. Nationalpreis für Kunst und Wissenschaft – see Deutscher Nationalpreis für Kunst und Wissenschaft. Nationalsozialismus (NS) – National Socialism, i.e., Nazism. Nationalsozialistische Betriebszellenorganisation (NSBO) – National Socialist Factory Cell Organization (Nazi Party labor union) which had a membership of approx. 400,000 workers by January 1933. Nationalsozialistische Briefe – pro-labor publication launched by Gregor Strasser and edited by Joseph Goebbels. Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei (NSDAP) – the National Socialist German Workers' Party of Adolf Hitler: the Nazi Party. Nationalsozialistische Frauenschaft (NSF) – "National Socialist Women's League" headed by Gertrud Scholtz-Klink; founded in October 1931 as a fusion of several nationalist and national-socialist women's associations. It was designed to create women leaders and supervise indoctrination and training. It had 2 million members by 1938. National-Sozialistische Landpost – NSDAP agricultural paper started by Richard Walther Darré. Nationalsozialistischer Lehrerbund (NSLB) "National Socialist Teachers League" – mandatory teachers' union; in 1935 merged into the NSDDB. Nationalsozialistische Volkswohlfahrt (NSV) – NSDAP welfare organization founded in Berlin in September 1931. It acquired the official role in welfare and later on the racial policy of the Third Reich. Nationalsozialistischer Deutscher Dozentenbund (NSDDB) – National Socialist German University Lecturers League. Nationalsozialistischer Deutscher Studentenbund (NSDStB) – Nazi Students League, founded in 1926. Nationalsozialistisches Fliegerkorps (NSFK) – National Socialist Flyers Corps. Flying "club" used to mask the training of future military pilots; closely affiliated to the SA and thus a rival to Goering's DLV. Nationalsozialistisches Kraftfahrkorps (NSKK) – National Socialist Motor Corps. Originally the transport branch of the SA, the NSKK became the national organisation for the promotion of and training in motor vehicle operation and maintenance. Nazi – a short term for Nationalsozialist, i.e. a supporter of Nazism (National Socialism) and/or the Nazi Party. It was contrasted with Sozi, which was used to refer to a Sozialist, i.e. a supporter of Socialism and/or the Social Democratic Party of Germany. As an adjective, this short form is used more often in the English language than in German, in which the acronyms NS and NSDAP for respectively the ideology and the party were and are the preferred form. Nazism – National Socialism; the ideology of the NSDAP (generally considered to be a variant of Fascism with racist and antisemitic components) denazification (Entnazifizierung) – the process by which the Allied occupiers attempted to purge post-war Germany of remnants of the Nazi regime and Nazi philosophy ex-Nazis – former Nazis Nazismus – Nazism. Nebenland ("Borderland") – term occasionally used to describe the General Government's legally vague status as an "ancillary region" of the German Reich that was neither fully within its boundaries nor accorded any clear political designation. Negermusik ("Negro Music") – a term used to denigrate music such as Jazz and Swing that was performed by African-American musicians. Such music became banned publicly in Nazi Germany. See also Swingjugend (swing kids). Die Neuordnung – "The New Order"; the formation of a hegemonial empire in Europe in order to ensure the supremacy of Nazi Germany and the "Nordic-Aryan master race". Night of the Long Knives – A/K/A "Operation Hummingbird", or more commonly used in Germany "Röhm-Putsch". It was the action that took place in Nazi Germany between June 30 and 2 July 1934 where Hitler and the SS murderously purged the ranks of the Sturmabteilung (SA). Nordstern – architectural project to construct a new, exclusively German-populated metropolis and naval base close to the Norwegian city of Trondheim. NSDAP – The formal abbreviation of the Nazi party's full name. NSDAP Zentralkartei – master file, containing approx. 7.2 million original and official individual German Nazi Party membership cards. Comprises two separate files. It is housed in the Berlin Document Center (BDC). Ortskartei – Reichskartei – Nur für Deutsche – "For Germans Only." Nuremberg Rallies – see Reichsparteitag Nürnberger Gesetze, Nuremberg Laws – 1935 set of decrees which deprived Jews of German citizenship and placed strict restrictions on their lives and employment. O SS-Oberabschnitt – SS region or regional headquarters. Oberführer "senior leader" – an SA and SS rank, equivalent to Senior Colonel; originally called Gauführer, the SS or SA leader for a Gau. Obergruppenführer "senior group leader" – an SA and SS rank, equivalent to (US/UK) Lieutenant General. Oberkommando des Heeres (OKH) – "High Command of the Army" from 1936 to 1945. Oberkommando der Wehrmacht (OKW) – "High Command of the Armed Forces". The OKW replaced the War Ministry and was part of the command structure of the armed forces of Nazi Germany. Obersalzberg – mountainside resort overlooking Berchtesgaden in the Bavarian Alps, where Hitler purchased the Berghof in 1933, and which became the country retreat of many Nazi leaders including Martin Bormann and Hermann Göring. Oberscharführer "senior squad leader" – an SA and SS rank, equivalent to Sergeant (SA) or Staff Sergeant (SS). Oberste SA-Führer "Supreme SA Leader" – commander of the Sturmabteilung; held by Hitler personally from September 1930. Oberstgruppenführer "highest group leader" – an SS rank, equivalent to (US/UK) General. Obersturmbannführer "senior Sturmbann (battalion) leader" – an SA and SS rank, equivalent to Lieutenant Colonel. Obersturmführer "senior Sturm (company) leader" – an SA and SS rank, equivalent to First Lieutenant. Obertruppführer "senior troop leader" – an SA and early SS rank, equivalent to Master Sergeant. Ordensburgen – NSDAP training schools. Ordnertruppen – first name of the group created in the fall of 1920 by Hitler. Sportabteilung – Sports section (SA); the second name of the group Sturmabteilung (SA) – Storm Detachment or Battalion, abbreviated SA and usually translated as stormtroop(er)s. NSDAP paramilitary group; the third name in late 1921 Ordnungsdienst – order service, ghetto police made up of Jewish ghetto residents. Ordnungspolizei (Orpo) "order police" – the regular uniformed police after their nationalization in 1936. Organisation Todt – civil and military engineering group eponymously named after its founder, Fritz Todt. Built the Autobahns, the Westwall (Siegfried Line), the Wolfsschanze and the Atlantic Wall; notorious for its use of conscript and slave labor. Ort-Uschla – the lowest level of the four-level Uschla system. Ostmark ("Eastern March") – designation used for Austria as part of the Third Reich after the Anschluß. Changed to Alpen- und Donaureichsgaue in 1942 to further eradicate any notion of a separate Austrian state. P Pan-Germanism – The idea that all Germans should live in one country. Panzerkampfwagen (military) – "armoured fighting vehicle" = tank; not specific to Third Reich, but listed here for its centrality to Blitzkrieg. Panzerfaust "armour fist" – An inexpensive, disposable, recoilless anti-tank weapon of World War II. Forerunner that led to the development of the Soviet RPG (rocket-propelled grenade). Panzerschreck An anti-tank weapon of World War II, similar to the American bazooka. Partei-Statistik – 1935 Nazi Party three volume publication of membership data. Parteitage – (NSDAP) Party (rally) days. Planwirtschaft – a limited planned economy; Walther Funk promoted this idea within the Nazi party who thought genuine corporatism too stifling for business growth. Plutokratie – "Plutocracy", Nazi term for the western capitalist countries, especially the USA and the UK. Plötzensee – a place in Berlin, site of a notorious prison where numerous opponents of Hitler and the Nazi régime were put to death. Prinzenerlass – A 1940 decree by Hitler prohibiting members of Germanic royal families from working for the military. Putsch – German word meaning coup or revolt; has also entered the English language meaning the same. Q Quisling – A pejorative meaning "traitor" during World War II, commonly used as an insult directed at a citizen who collaborated with the Germans in one of the conquered nations. The term was taken from Vidkun Quisling, the pro-Nazi Norwegian leader. R Rampenkommando – ("ramp commando") A death camp, labor camp, or concentration camp worker—often drawn from among prisoner kapos—tasked with working at the Judenrampe in order to unload the rail cars and to process the newly arrived internees toward sorting, property-confiscation, and/or pre-execution staging areas. Rasse – race. Rassenhygiene – "Racial Hygiene"—the Nazi eugenics program—implemented to improve the Nordic Aryan master race itself to the point where it could eventually become a super race. Rassenschande – (literally "racial shame"); a Nazi term for sexual relations between an Aryan and a "non-Aryan" (including Jews, Slavs, and persons of African ancestry) which were banned by the Nuremberg laws. Rednerschule der NSDAP – National Socialist Speaker's School. Regierungspräsident – 'president' of a regional administration, in fact subordinate to the Nazi party's Gauleiter. Reich – Often translated as "Empire" or "State", perhaps the most accurate translation is "Realm". Reichsarbeitsdienst – State Labour Service, or RAD; 1931 formed as an auxiliary labour service, became 1935 obligatory (six month) for all men and women between 18 and 25 years. Reichsbauernführer – National Farmers' Leader; title given to Richard Walther Darré. Reichsbevollmächtigter – Imperial Plenipotentiary in occupied territory. Reichsbräuteschule – Reich Bride Schools. + Reichsbund der Deutschen Beamten Reichsführer-SS – title held by Heinrich Himmler, head of the SS Schutzstaffel. Equal on paper to the rank of Generalfeldmarschall, but in fact more akin to Reichsmarschall from 1942 onward as Himmler amassed ever greater power. Reichsheini – derogatory nickname for Reichsführer Heinrich Himmler. Reichsjägerhof – "Reichsjägerhof Hermann Göring" – Göring's hunting lodge near Braunschweig Reichsjägerhof Rominten Göring's hunting lodge in East Prussia. Reichskanzlei – "Reich Chancellery" was the traditional name of the office of the German Chancellor (Reichskanzler). In 1938, Hitler assigned his favourite architect Albert Speer to build the New Reich Chancellery, requesting that the building be completed within a year and it was done. Very near the complex was the underground Vorbunker and Führerbunker; the latter where Hitler committed suicide on 30 April 1945. The New Reich Chancellery had the address No. 6 Voßstrasse, a branch-off of the Wilhelmstrasse, where the Old Reich Chancellery was located. Reichskonkordat (Reich Concordat) - agreement reached between the future Pope, Cardinal Eugenio Pacelli (Pius XII) and the Nazi government which was supposed to guarantee German citizens the right to practice their Catholic faith, safeguard church patronage in ecclesiastical affairs, uphold spiritual education, and protect religious property and communities throughout Germany in exchange for papal recognition and legitimization of the Nazi government. This agreement stabilized and sanctioned the Nazi regime, in a manner of speaking, while concomitantly preserving rights for the Catholic Church. Reichskriminalpolizeiamt – Reich Criminal Police Department or RKPA; alternative name of RSHA Amt V: Kriminalpolizei. Reichskommissar – Imperial Commissioner, a type of Governor in occupied territory. Reichskonferenz – National Caucus; national caucuses held by the Austrian Deutsche Arbeiterpartei before World War I. Reichsleitung – national leadership; members of the NSDAP Party Directorate. They all swore personal loyalty to the Führer. Reichsmark (RM) 'Mark of the Realm' – German monetary unit. 100 Reichspfennig = 1 Reichsmark. Reichsmarschall – "Marshal of the Realm", the highest rank in the German armed forces during World War II (held only by Hermann Göring). Reichsministerium für Rüstung und Kriegsproduktion – the Reich Ministry for Armaments and War Production, founded in 1942 by merging the earlier Ministry for Weapons and Munitions with Organisation Todt; it was headed by Albert Speer. Reichsministerium für Volksaufklärung und Propaganda – The "Reich Ministry of Public Enlightenment and Propaganda", directed by Joseph Goebbels, established to spread Nazi propaganda. Reichsmordwoche, Nacht der langen Messer – "State Murder Week, Night of the Long Knives" of June–July 1934 during which Hitler assassinated hundreds of party-internal opponents, especially the SA, which was decapitated of its leadership. Reichsparteitage – "State Party Days", referred to in English as the Nuremberg Rallies, Nazi party rallies, held annually in Nüremberg near the date of the autumn equinox before the outbreak of war in 1939. Joseph Goebbels said of the Nuremberg Rallies, "The Fuehrer and I consider ourselves artists and the German people are our canvas." Reichsprotektor – Ruling German representative in the Czech Protectorate Bohemia and Moravia. Reichsschrifttumskammer – the Nazi Chamber of Literature. Hanns Johst was president. Reichssicherheitshauptamt (RSHA) – an SS subsidiary organization made up of 7 main departments including, the intelligence & security forces and secret police forces for Germany and occupied territories; also oversaw the Einsatzgruppen. Originally led by Reinhard Heydrich. Reichsstatthalter – "Stadtholder of the Realm", i.e., Reich Governor; after the seizure of power in 1933, local governments were dissolved and the Gauleiters were appointed to govern the states with full powers. Reichstag – "Realm Diet (or Parliament)"; see Reichstag (building), Reichstag (Nazi Germany) Reichstrunkenbold – "Reich drunkard", derogative name secretly given to Robert Ley whose alcoholism was widely known. Reichs-Uschla – the highest level of the four-tiered Uschla system, venued in Munich. Reichswasserleiche – "Reich water corpse", nicknake given to Swedish film actress Kristina Söderbaum due to a tendency of her characters in NS propaganda films such as Jud Süss to commit suicide by drowning. Reichswehr "national defense" – the armed forces of the Weimar Republic, strictly limited under the Versailles Treaty. Renamed the Wehrmacht in 1935. The Reichswehr comprised the Army, Reichsheer the Navy, Reichsmarine Reichswerke Hermann Göring – an industrial conglomerate which absorbed the captured industrial assets of German-occupied countries. By the end of 1941 the Reichswerke became the largest company in Europe and probably in the whole world, with a capital of 2.4 billion Reichsmark and about half a million workers Reinrassig – a zoological term meaning "of pure breed." Applied to human races, persons who could not prove their Aryan ancestry could be considered nicht reinrassig. Restpolen ("remainder of Poland") – parts of occupied Poland that were organized as the General Government in September 1939. Resttschechei ("remainder of Czechia") – parts of occupied Czechoslovakia that were organized as the Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia in March 1939. Revolution der Gesinnung – revolution of attitude; the concept that the German people would not only develop a purified race but also a new mind and spirit. It was about, in Hitler's words, "to create a new man". (5) Righteous Gentiles – In secular usage, the term is used by the State of Israel to describe non-Jews who risked their lives during the Holocaust in order to save Jews from extermination by the Nazis. The secular award (discussed below) by the same name given by the State of Israel has often been translated into English as "Righteous Gentile." Ritterkreuz, in full Ritterkreuz des Eisernen Kreuzes, "Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross" – Germany's second-highest military decoration, worn at the throat. Whereas the other grades of the Iron Cross originated during the Napoleonic Wars, the Ritterkreuz was a Third Reich creation, a replacement for various royal orders like the Pour le Merite. Successive awards were marked by the progressive addition of Eichenlaub (oakleaves), Schwerten (swords), and Brillanten (diamonds). A further degree, with Gold Oakleaves, Swords and Diamonds, was intended as a postwar honor for Germany's twelve greatest military heroes; one was awarded ahead of schedule to Stuka ace Hans-Ulrich Rudel. Ritterkreuzauftrag "Knight's Cross job" – soldiers' slang for a suicidal mission Ritterkreuzträger – holder of the Knight's Cross. Röhm-Putsch – name used by the Nazis for the Night of the Long Knives, which they characterized as a foiled coup attempt by Ernst Röhm and the SA. Rottenführer "team leader" – an SA and SS rank, equivalent to Lance-Corporal. S Scharführer "squad leader" – an SA and SS rank, equivalent to Corporal (SA) or Sergeant (SS). Schlageter—a play written for Adolf Hitler about the Nazi martyr Leo Schlageter and performed for the Fuehrer on his 44th birthday, April 20, 1933, to celebrate his accession to power on January 30 of that year. It was written by the Nazi playwright and poet laureate Hanns Johst. In it, one of the characters, Thiemann, delivers the famous line "Whenever I hear the word 'culture', I release the safety catch on my revolver." Schönheit der Arbeit – Beauty of Labor program. SS-Schütze "rifleman" – lowest rank in the Waffen-SS, equivalent to Private. Schutzstaffel (abbreviated SS – or Runic "↯↯" ) – "Protection Squadron"; a major Nazi organization that grew from a small paramilitary unit that served as Hitler's personal body guard into militarily what was in practical terms the fourth branch of the Wehrmacht. It was not legally a part of the military (and therefore wore the national emblem on the left sleeve instead of over the right breast pocket). "SS" is formed from (S)chutz(s)taffel. Made up of the following branches: Allgemeine-SS – "General SS", general main body of the Schutzstaffel made up of the full-time administrative, security, intelligence and police branches of the SS as well as the broader part-time membership which turned out for parades, rallies and "street actions" such as Kristallnacht; also included reserve and honorary members SS-Totenkopfverbände – "Death's Head Units", responsible for the concentration camps SS-Verfügungstruppe – military "dispositional" (i.e. at Hitler's personal disposal) troops organized by the SS in 1934 Waffen-SS – "Armed SS", created in August 1940 with the amalgamation of the Verfügungstruppe, the Leibstandarte SS Adolf Hitler (LSSAH) and the combat Standarten of the Totenkopfverbände Das Schwarze Korps – The Black Corps; SS "theoretical" newspaper of the SS. Selektion – selection of inmates for execution or slave labor at an extermination or concentration camp. Septemberings – Those who joined the NSDAP after the Party's breakthrough in the Reichstag elections of September 1930, but before Hitler became Chancellor in 1933. Siberiakentum – "Siberiandom" – term used in Generalplan Ost to describe the annihilation of the Polish people by their forceful assimilation into the native populations of Siberia in the intended event of their wholesale expulsion to this region. Sicherheitsdienst (SD) "Security Service" – the intelligence arm of the SS and later a main department of the RSHA. Sicherheitspolizei (SiPo) "Security Police" – the combined forces of the Gestapo and Kripo. Sieg Heil! – "Hail to Victory", mass exclamation when bringing the Hitlergruß (Hitler Greeting). Sig Rune "S rune" – The letter from the runic alphabet popularized in the SS emblem (Runic "↯↯") and other insignia. Sonderaktion 1005 – ("Special action 1005"), also called Aktion 1005 ("Action 1005") or 'Enterdungsaktion ("exhuming action"). See above Aktion 1005. Sonderbehandlung – "Special handling" or "special treatment" – a euphemism for killing. Sonderkraftfahrzeug (Sd.Kfz.) "special purpose motor vehicle" – all tanks and other military vehicles were assigned a Sd.Kfz number. Sonderkommando – "Special commando" – originally used mainly for actual special-task troops in the Waffen SS. However, the term was quickly put to facetious use at the concentration camps, labor camps, and death camps as the euphemism for the prisoner-laborers forced to do jobs like stoking the crematoria, shaving newcomers' hair, processing seized belongings, helping unload trains, removing corpses from gas chambers, etc. Such laborers were told they could live in exchange for their hard effort, but there were regularly killed off and replaced. When working in their civilian clothes such laborers at times would have a color-coded armband to distinguish them from new arrivals – perhaps one color for the crew unloading the trains and herding new arrivals to the undressing area, a different color for the crew that sorts belongings, etc. They might also wear the familiar striped prisoner suits similar to those used by the slave laborers. A number appended to the word Sonderkommando denoted prisoner-laborers attached to a specific "special action"example see Sonderkommando 1005 in Aktion 1005 above. Work gang leaders were called kapos. Sprachregelung – a special language that masked the camp conditions and the policy of extermination. It took the words "extermination", "killing", "liquidation"; and substituted for them, the euphemisms: "final solution", "evacuation", "special treatment", "resettlement", "labour in the East". It was developed to deceive victims and to assist SS officials and others to avoid acknowledging reality. (2) Sprechabend – closed Nazi party meetings. SS or Runic "↯↯" – Abbreviation and emblem of the Schutzstaffel ("Protection Squadron"). See above: Schutzstaffel. SS- und Polizeiführer, SS and Police Leader – these powerful officials, reporting directly to Himmler, commanded all SS and police forces within a geographic region, which together covered the Reich and the occupied territories. SS- und Polizeiführer (SSPF) Höher SS- und Polizeiführer (HSSPF), Higher SS and Police Leader Höchste SS- und Polizeiführer (HöSSPF), Highest SS and Police Leader Stabschef-SA Chief of Staff or deputy commander of the Sturmabteilung; effectively the SA commander after 1930. Stabsscharführer "staff squad leader" – a Waffen-SS position (not a rank): the senior NCO in a company, functionally equivalent to a US First Sergeant or UK Company Sergeant Major. Staffel "squadron" – the basic formation of the early SA 1925–28. Also used by the Luftwaffe and the cavalry. Staffelführer "squadron leader" – very early SA and SS rank. Also a rank in the NSKK, equivalent to Major. Stahlhelm "Steel Helmet" – right-wing World War I veterans' organization; merged into the SA in 1934. Standarte – regiment-sized unit of the SA, Allgemeine-SS and Totenkopfverbände. Standartenführer "Standarte leader" – an SA and SS rank, equivalent to Colonel. Ständesozialismus – corporative (or "corporate") socialism; promoted by O. W. Wagener, sometime head of the political economy section of the party organization. Stellvertreter des Führers "Deputy of the Führer" – title of the deputy head of the Nazi Party, held by Rudolf Hess until 1941 when he was replaced by Martin Bormann under the new title of Party Chancellor after the former's unauthorized flight to Great Britain. Stennes Revolt – the revolt in 1930 and again in 1931 by the Berlin SA, commanded by Walter Stennes, in which they attacked and briefly occupied the headquarters of Gauleiter Joseph Goebbels. Stern zum Großkreuz des Eisernen Kreuzes, Star of the Grand Cross of the Iron Cross – Germany's ultimate military decoration, a unique honor for the greatest commander in a war. Awarded only twice, to Blücher in 1813 and to Hindenburg in 1918; the Star of the 1939 creation was made but never awarded, and is now at West Point. Stoßtrupp "shock troop" – Hitler's body guard unit before the Hitlerputsch; forerunner to the SS. Strasser wing – named after Gregor Strasser, who led the left wing of the Nazi Party. Stücke – "sticks" or pieces, items. The term could mean sticks of firewood or pieces of bread or cake. In the Nazi era, a Sprachregelung term for Jews and other "undesirables" meant to dehumanize such people. Example: "1000 Stück Juden in den Osten deportiert" ("1000 Jewish pieces deported to the east") – not meaning items of personal property of Jewish ownership, but rather referring to the Jews themselves as "pieces". Sturm – company-sized SA or SS unit. Sturmabteilung (SA) "Storm Detachment" or "Battalion" – the Stormtroopers, a Nazi paramilitary organisation that was instrumental in bringing Hitler to power; nicknamed the Brownshirts (Braunhemden) after their uniforms. The name originated with the Army's special assault battalions of World War I. Sturmbann "storm band" or "band of Stürme" – battalion-sized SA or SS unit. Sturmbannführer: "storm band leader" – an SA and SS rank, equivalent to Major. Der Stürmer – a weekly anti-Semitic newspaper founded by Julius Streicher known for its lurid semi-pornographic content. Sturmführer "storm leader" – an SA and early SS rank, equivalent to 2nd Lieutenant. Sturmgewehr "storm gun" – the StG 44, a model of assault rifle in service from 1942 to 1945, of a class ordinarly designated "Maschinenpistole". Sturmhauptführer "storm chief leader" – an SA and early SS rank, equivalent to Captain. Sturmmann "storm trooper" – an SA and SS rank, equivalent to a USMC Private First Class. Sturmscharführer "storm squad leader" – the highest enlisted rank in the Waffen-SS, equivalent to (US) Sergeant Major or (UK) RSM. Sudetenland – the mountainous region lying between Bohemia and Silesia whose people were German speakers. This region of the former Czechoslovakia contained over 3 million "ethnic" Germans. Difficulties in the Sudetenland were used as a pretext for annexation by Hitler shortly in the wake of the Austrian Anschluß of 1938. At the Munich Conference, British Prime Minister Neville Chamberlain (1937–1940) was duped by the Führer and pursued a policy of appeasement which recognized Germany's claims. The British Prime Minister incorrectly believed it would mean, `peace in our time', a statement he embarrassingly made before the British Press. Chamberlain was wrong about the intentions of the Nazis and the Sudetenland became his greatest gaffe as Hitler invaded the rest of Czechoslovakia in 1939, precipitating the Second World War. Swingjugend – "Swing Kids" – young jazz and Swing lovers in 1930s Germany, mainly in Hamburg and Berlin, who rebelled against the regime by gathering in various venues, such as certain dance halls and cafés, to dance the jitterbug to swing music. T Taifun – ("Typhoon"), the code name given to the military assault of Moscow late in 1941. Tausendjähriges Reich – ("Thousand-Year Reich"), name popularly used by the Nazis to refer to the Nazi state. Its millennial connotations suggested that its society would last for a thousand years to come. Theresienstadt – a concentration camp approximately 35 miles outside of Prague which acquired a reputation for being more "humane" than other camps. Following the Allied victory, this myth was shattered since it was frequently employed as a transit stop for Jews headed to Treblinka or Auschwitz. Thule Gesellschaft – "Thule Society". The Nazis sought themes for their ideology in the occult and the Germanic and Nordic traditions. Totenbuch – (death book), a book found at a concentration camp which categorized incoming inmates and served to catalogue the deaths and was used to track the total number of people exterminated. Totenkopf "death's head" – human-skull emblem worn by members of the SS, and also by Heer (German Army) and Luftwaffe panzer crews, thought to symbolise loyalty beyond death. Not specific to the Third Reich, and previously used by Prussian cavalry units and the World War I Imperial Tank Corps. Also the specific name for the Luftwaffe's Kampfgeschwader 54 medium bomber wing. Totenkopf-Standarten – Regiment-sized field formations of the Totenkopfverbände. They were merged into the Waffen-SS in August 1940. Totenkopfverbände "Death's Head Units" – The branch of the SS responsible for the concentration camps, as well as many of the Einsatzgruppen death squads. The 3rd SS Division Totenkopf was formed by men from the Totenkopfverbände. Totenkopfwachsturmbanne "Death's Head Guard Battalions" – concentration camp guard units. Treblinka – located along the Bug River in Poland and about 75 miles from Warsaw, Treblinka was the second Vernichtungslager (extermination camp) after Auschwitz. Upwards of 700,000 victims met their end at Treblinka. The camp was never intended for slave labor or any other Nazi endeavor, as its sole purpose remained murder. Triumph des Willens – Triumph of the Will" – A famous Nazi propaganda film, directed by Leni Reifenstahl. Truppenamt "Troop Office" – the cover name of the Reichswehr's clandestine General Staff, illegal under the Versailles Treaty. Truppführer "troop leader" – an SA and early SS rank, equivalent to Staff Sergeant. Turnvereine – German and Austrian calisthenic leagues. They were identically dressed men and women making identical movements in mass performance. U Übermensch – "over-human" or "higher human"—an idea appropriated from the work of Friedrich Nietzsche and used by Nazis to label the Germanic "Aryan" people which Nazis considered racially and culturally superior. The "master race". (Opposite of Untermensch). Überwachungsdienst – surveillance service of the aA to protect the organization against Konjunkturritter (financial opportunists). Unzuverlässige Elemente – unreliable societal elements (Jews, communists, homosexuals, etc.). U-Boot (abbreviated form of Unterseeboot, lit. "undersea boat") – submarine, anglicized U-Boat. Umschlagplatz – (lit. "changing place") place of assembly. Jewish Police were told to collect Jews and bring them to this designated spot for pick up and transfer to the trains that would usually lead to the Death camps.. Umsiedlersonderzug – (lit. "re-settler special train") "Relocation" train – actually a one-way transport by which Jews and others were moved to camps (labor camps, concentration camps, or death camps). The term appears on some period railroad documents (example). Untermensch – "under-human" or lower human, subhuman. Label Nazis assigned to ethnographic groups they considered racially inferior to the "Aryans". Under Nazi racial theory and practice, such "subhumans" could be exploited, abused, and killed-off with impunity. (Opposite of Übermensch). Unternehmen Walküre "Operation Valkyrie" – Originally a Replacement Army emergency plan for maintaining order in the event of an internal revolt, it was quietly altered by a group officers led by Generaloberst Ludwig Beck, General d. I. Friedrich Olbricht and Oberst i. G. Claus von Stauffenberg into a plan to overthrow the Nazi regime following the assassination of Adolf Hitler. Launched on 20 July 1944, the plan failed and resulted in some 5,000 executions. Unterscharführer "junior squad leader" – an SS rank, equivalent to Corporal. Untersturmführer "junior storm leader" – an SS rank, equivalent to Second Lieutenant. Uschla – arbitration committee of the NSDAP Party Directorate, an acronym for Untersuchung und Schlichtungs-Ausschuss (Inquiry and Settlement Committee). Unnütze Esser – (lit. "useless eaters" or "useless mouths") Similar to life unworthy of life, a designation for people with serious medical problems or disabilities. The term was also applied to Jews. It was used in the 1938 children's book Der Giftpilz by Julius Streicher. V V-1 and V-2 – Vergeltungswaffen "weapons of retaliation". Used to attack Britain and other countries controlled by the Allies. The V-1 was the world's first operational cruise missile; the V-2 the first ballistic missile. Other "V-Waffe" were planned but did not become operational. Verbotzeit – the time in which the NSDAP was officially banned in Bavaria, between the Beer Hall Putsch (9 November 1923) and the effective date of the lifting of the ban (16 February 1925). SS-Verfügungstruppe "Dispositional Troops" – the military branch of the SS, formed in 1934 under Paul Hausser. In August 1940 became the nucleus of the Waffen-SS. Vernichtungslager – death camps. This word was never used by the Nazis themselves. Verwaltung (administration). Volk – People, folk-community, nation, or ethnic group. It is extremely difficult to convey the full meaning of this word in English. It implies a "volk community" rooted in the soil of the heimat (homeland) with many centuries of ancestral tradition and linked together by a spiritual zeitgeist. Völkerchaos – (chaos of races), the concept that there was a race of mixed people from the Mediterranean which resulted from unwanted historical change. In conjunction with the Nazi xenophobia of the Jews, this idea added another racial enemy that the German Volk had to overcome in their historic destiny to master the world. Volk ohne Raum – "A people without space". A political slogan used to justify the conquest of the east. Volksdeutsche – "ethnic Germans in other countries to be exploited by VoMi" Volksdeutsche Mittelstelle – "VoMi – a Nazi organization to carry out Nazification of ethnic Germans in other countries." Volksgenosse – "Folk comrade" Völkisch movement Völkischer Beobachter – (People's Observer), the official Nazi Party newspaper. Deutsche Arbeiterpolitik – special labor section included in the above party paper Der Angriff – (the Attack), Nazi Party labor newspaper started by Joseph Goebbels Der Erwerbslose – Nazi Party labor newspaper Arbeitertum – Nazi Party labor newspaper. Volksgenossen-"National Comrades". Those who belonged to the Volksgemeinschaft. Volksgerichtshof – literally "People's Court", a tribunal which condemned people accused of crimes against the state; verdicts were sometimes directed by Hitler himself. Volkshalle – a gigantic domed building proposed to be constructed in Berlin as part of Albert Speer's Welthauptstadt Germania, from which Hitler planned to issue his Imperial decrees to Occupied Europe before crowds of up to 180,000 people. Volkswagen – "people's car". Conceived during the mid-1930s but did not go into production until after 1945. Perhaps the most durable and popular legacy of the Third Reich. Volksgemeinschaft – "People's Community"—a concept that means national solidarity; popular ethnic community; classless volk community. Volkssturm – (People's Army), formed in October 1944, the Volkssturm was a last ditch effort of the Nazis to call all men (aged 16 to 60 years old) to fight against the invading Allied forces in the final stages of the war. Poorly armed and inadequately equipped, the Volkssturm answered not to the Wehrmacht leadership but instead to Himmler in his capacity as the commander of the Reserve Army. Primarily engaged against the Red Army along Germany's eastern corridor, over 175,000 members of this "rag-tag" military auxiliary were killed in action. Historian Martin Kitchen describes the establishment of the Volkssturm as a "pathetic affair." Against the might of the advancing Russian, Canadian, American, and British forces, members of the Volkssturm (mainly young and old men, with little training) were expected to use handheld anti-tank weapons and small arms in the fight alongside the remaining Wehrmacht soldiers in repulsing the onslaught. Even if they were to prove unsuccessful, the Volkssturm mission was to set a shining example to future generations by fighting to the 'last man and the last bullet' for the Fatherland; as if these efforts would somehow expunge the surrender of 1918. Vorbunker – (the upper bunker) or "forward bunker" was located behind the large reception hall of the old Reich Chancellery in Berlin. It was meant to be a temporary air-raid shelter for Adolf Hitler and was officially called the "Reich Chancellery Air-Raid Shelter" until 1943, with the construction to expand the complex with the addition of the Führerbunker. Vorsicht Hochspannung Lebensgefahr – Typical warning message on signs affixed to electrified fences around concentration camps, labor camps, and death camps. Essentially: "watch out high voltage life-danger." W Waffenamt "Weapons Office" – responsible the procurement of military equipment; WaA with a number was the standard arms inspection stamp or mark. Waffen-SS "Armed SS" – the combat branch of the Schutzstaffel, formed in August 1940 from earlier SS military formations; by war's end had grown into a parallel army with (nominally) 38 divisions. Wachmänner – "watchmen", the SS guards at death camps recruited of their own free will from Soviet POW camps and trained at Trawniki Waldkommando – "Wood-commando" prisoner-laborers assigned to work in forests, primarily to obtain firewood for heating and for burning corpses. Wandervogel – German youth movement of the period 1901 to 1933, co-opted by the Hitler Youth. Wannsee Conference – a conference held on January 20, 1942 beside Lake Wannsee in Berlin in which it was decided and made official Nazi policy that the total annihilation of European Jews was the only rational means of a "Final Solution" to the Jewish Question. Wehrbauern – soldier-peasant settlements that were to be established in the East to act as a defensive shield against the inroads of Slav barbarianism. Wehrkraftzersetzung – a crime invented by the Nazis. It meant "negatively affecting the fighting forces". People who expressed doubts about Germany's chances of winning the war, or about Hitler's leadership were sometimes put to death for Wehrkraftzersetzung. Wehrmacht "Defence force" – the name of the armed forces of Nazi Germany from 1935 to 1945. Prior to that time, the Reichswehr. Consisted of the Heer (Army), Kriegsmarine (Navy) and Luftwaffe (Air Force), but not the Waffen-SS or the Police even though they both fielded combat units during the war. Wehrmachtsadler "Armed forces eagle" – form of the Hoheitsabzeichen worn by the Heer and Kriegsmarine, but not the Luftwaffe. Weibliche Kriminalpolizei – Women's branch of the national criminal police department. Wewelsburg – a castle near Büren in the Paderborn district of Westphalia, taken over and restored by Heinrich Himmler as an SS officers' training school and cult center. Die Weiße Rose – "The White Rose" – a non-violent/intellectual resistance group in Nazi Germany, consisting of students from the University of Munich and their philosophy professor. The group became known for an anonymous leaflet campaign, lasting from June 1942 until February 1943, that called for active opposition to the Nazi regime. Weltanschauungskrieg – war of ideologies. Welthauptstadt Germania – architectural plan to rebuild Berlin into a massive imperial metropolis. Westland – propaganda name used to denote the incorporation of the Netherlands (and in a wider context, all of the Low Countries) into a Nazi-controlled Europe. Wille und Macht "Will and Power" – the monthly magazine of the Hitler Youth. Winterhilfswerk Winterhilfe – Winter Relief Program and annual fundraising drive by the Nazi Party to support impoverished German victims of the Great Depression and of World War II. The successor to the similar program in existence during the Weimar Republic (1919–1933). Once a week, people would eat an eintopf ("one pot") meal, and donate the money they would have spent for a regular meal to the Winterhilfe. Wirtschaftspolitische Abteilung – 1931 WPA; A NSDAP proposed program. Wirtschaftliches Sofortprogramm – 1932 Economic Program; A NSDAP proposed program. Wirtschaftliches Aufbauprogramm – 1932 Economic Reconstruction Plan; A NSDAP proposed program. Wolfsangel "Wolf's hook" – runic emblem adopted by several military units of Nazi Germany. Wolfsschanze "Wolf's Lair" – Hitler's first World War II Eastern Front military headquarters, one of several Führer Headquarters or FHQs located in various parts of Europe. The complex, built for Operation Barbarossa (the 1941 German invasion of the Soviet Union) was located in the Masurian woods, about 8 kilometres (5.0 mi) from Rastenburg, East Prussia (N/K/A Kętrzyn, Poland). It is the location where he spent much of his time during the war following the launch of Operation Barbarossa. Wunderwaffe – "silver bullet" (literally, wonder weapons), referring to weapon systems developed at the end of World War II (such as the V-1 and the V-2) that were supposed to turn around Germany's desperate situation on the battlefields. Wu-wa – mocking colloquial shortening of wunderwaffen. X no entries Y no entries Z Z-Plan (or Plan-Z) was the name given to the re-equipment and expansion of the Kriegsmarine (Nazi German Navy) as ordered by Adolf Hitler on 27 January 1939. The plan called for 10 battleships, four aircraft carriers, three battlecruisers, eight heavy cruisers, 44 light cruisers, 68 destroyers and 249 U-boats by 1944 that was meant to challenge the naval power of the United Kingdom. The outbreak of World War II in September 1939 came far too early to implement the plan. Zossen – The underground bunker complex that was headquarters for both the German Wehrmacht (OKW) and (Heer) Army High Command (OKH) located approximately 20 miles west of Berlin in Zossen, Germany. Zwangsarbeiter – A forced-laborer, a slave-laborer. Zwangswirtschaft – Nazi-era forced-labor or compulsion economy. Zwischenstaatliche Vertretertagungen – interstate meetings of representatives; DNSAP and NSDAP party congresses of the early years; first one held in Salzburg, Austria. Zyklon B Also spelled Cyclon B – tradename of a cyanide-based insecticide used to kill more than one million Jews, Gypsies, communists, and prisoners of war in Nazi gas chambers. (Deaths from Zyklon B account for over one of the eleven million people killed in the Holocaust —the others were killed by other means). List of abbreviations and acronyms See the glossary above for full explanations of the terms. aA – agrarpolitischer Apparat, or Agrarian Policy Apparatus DAF – Deutsche Arbeitsfront, or German Labor Front DAP – Deutsche Arbeiterpartei, or German Workers' Party: original name of the NSDAP DFO – Deutscher Frauenorden, or German Women's Order DJ – Deutsches Jungvolk, middle school aged boys' Hitler Youth organization DLV – Deutscher Luftsportverband, or German Air Sports Union DNSAP – Deutsche Nationalsozialistische Arbeiterpartei, the Austrian "German National Socialist Workers’ Party" DNVP – Deutschnationale Volkspartei, German National People's Party FHA – Führungshauptamt or Leadership Head Office, the administrative headquarters of the Waffen-SS FlaK – Flug(zeug)abwehr-Kanone, "air(craft) defense cannon," anti-aircraft gun Gestapo – The secret state police, short for Geheime Staatspolizei HJ – Hitlerjugend or Hitler Youth KdF – Kraft durch Freude, or Strength through Joy Kripo – Kriminalpolizei, the national criminal investigative police LVL – Landwirtschaftliche Vertrauensleute, agrarian agents for the NSDAP LSSAH – Leibstandarte SS Adolf Hitler, or Adolf Hitler SS Bodyguard Regiment Nazi – Portmanteau for "National Socialist" NPEA – Nationalpolitsche Erziehungsanstalten, or National Political Educational Establishment NSBO – Nationalsozialistische Betriebzellenorganisation, or National Socialist Factory Cell Organization NSDAP – Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei, or National Socialist German Workers’ Party: the Nazi Party NSDDB – Nationalsozialistischer Deutscher Dozentenbund, or National Socialist German University Lecturers League NSF – Nationalsozialistische Frauenschaft, or National Socialist Women's League NSFK – Nationalsozialistisches Fliegerkorps, or National Socialist Flyers Corps NSKK – Nationalsozialistisches Kraftfahrkorps, or National Socialist Motor Corps NSLB – Nationalsozialistische Lehrerbund, or National Socialist Teachers League NSV – Nationalsozialistische Volkswohlfahrt, or National Socialist People's Welfare OKH – Oberkommando des Heeres, or High Command of the Army OKL – Oberkommando der Luftwaffe, or High Command of the Air Force OKM – Oberkommando der Marine, or High Command of the Navy OKW – Oberkommando der Wehrmacht, or High Command of the Armed Forces Orpo – Ordnungspolizei, or Order Police PzKpfw, PzKw – Panzerkampfwagen, "armored fighting vehicle," tank RAD – Reichsarbeitsdienst, or State Labor Service RBA – National Socialist Factory Cell Division RKPA – Reichskriminalpolizeiamt or Reich Criminal Police Department; alternative name of RSHA Amt V: Kriminalpolizei RM – Reichsmark, the monetary unit of Germany 1924–1948 RSHA – Reichssicherheitshauptamt, Reich Main Security Office or Reich Security Head Office RZM – Reichszeugmeisterei, or National Material Control Office SA – Sturmabteilung, Storm (or Assault) Detachment, usually translated as Stormtroop(er)s: the Brownshirts SD – Sicherheitsdienst or Security Service of the SS Sd.Kfz. – Sonderkraftfahrzeug, or Special Purpose Motor Vehicle SiPo – Sicherheitspolizei or Security Police; made up of the Gestapo & Kripo SS – Schutzstaffel or Protection Squadron SS-TV – SS-Totenkopfverbände or Death's Head Units SS-VT – SS-Verfügungstruppe or Dispositional Troops WaA – Waffenamt or Weapons Office; used as an arms inspection stamp or mark