Showing posts with label NSDDB. Show all posts
Showing posts with label NSDDB. Show all posts

Sites around Munich (4)

The Löwenbräukeller beer hall was located at Nymphenburgerstrasse #4 on Stiglmaier Plaza in Munich, and it was where Hitler commanded the SA to break up a meeting of the rival Bavarian League on September 14, 1921, also ordering its main speaker—Otto Ballerstedt— to be assaulted, too.  
On November 8–9, 1923, at Munich’s Burgerbraukeller beer hall, Hitler attempted to seize first that city, then Bavaria, and finally the Reich by force, just as Benito Mussolini had done in Italy almost exactly a year before; however, Hitler failed miserably. On the night of 8 November. Ernst Röhm and some 2,000 SA, Bund Oberland, and Reichskriegflagge men assembled at the Lowenbräukeller where they received the code word from the Burgerbräu to march in support of the coup. Following that abysmal debacle, Hitler decided that, in the future, he would gain office only through legal means—and did a decade later, replacing the old state with a new, Nazi model that was built up during the intervening ten years by himself and the Party.
In 1939, Hitler cut short his Putsch commemorative speech in the same hall and left it just before an explosion that killed or wounded several Party members— an event still not entirely explained. Following the destruction of the Burgerbraukeller by Georg Elser’s bomb blast on November 8, 1939, the Führer and others honoured the anniversary of the 1923 Burgerbraukeller Putsch at the Lowenbraukeller throughout the rest of the war. 

On November 8 1940, 
the annual commemorative festivities began in the Löwenbräukeller in Munich. The usual site for the celebrations, the Bürgerbräukeller, destroyed in the mysterious explosion of the previous year, had not yet been completely restored. Though not invited to attend the 1940 festivities, the Royal Air Force nonetheless called at Munich to contribute a special fireworks display in the skies above the Bavarian capital. 
Doramus (2113) The Complete Hitler
Kershaw writes how, on the late afternoon of 8 November 1941, Hitler gave a speech intended primarily for domestic consumption. 
It aimed to boost morale, and to rally round the oldest and most loyal members of Hitler’s retinue after the difficult months of summer and autumn. Hitler described the scale of the Soviet losses. ‘My Party Comrades,’ he declared, ‘no army in the world, including the Russian, recovers from those.’ ‘Never before,’ he went on, ‘has a giant empire been smashed and struck down in a shorter time than Soviet Russia.’ He remarked on enemy claims that the war would last into 1942. ‘It can last as long as it wants,’ he retorted. ‘The last battalion in this field will be a German one.’ Despite the triumphalism, it was the strongest hint yet that the war was far from over.
The following year

when Hitler travelled to Munich to give his traditional address in the Löwenbräukeller to the marchers in the 1923 Putsch, the news from the Mediterranean had dramatically worsened. En route from Berlin to Munich, his special train was halted at a small station in the Thuringian Forest for him to receive a message from the Foreign Office: the Allied armada assembled at Gibraltar, which had for days given rise to speculation about a probable landing in Libya, was disembarking in Algiers and Oran. It would bring the first commitment of American ground-troops to the war in Europe.
This happened to be the same day as the Anglo-American landings in North Africa and less than a week after the defeat of General Erwin Rommel’s Africa Corps by the British at El Alamein. Normally, considering how catastrophic the effect of the Allied landing had been on public opinion in Germany, Hitler would never have given a speech. But what else could he do? After all, he had used the commemoration of November 8 as a pretext for his stay at the Berghof. He had no choice but to speak at the Löwenbräukeller in spite of everything.473 Not surprisingly, the speech was one of the most miserable he ever gave. The “old marchers of 1923” were so preoccupied with thoughts of the Allied landing that they even forgot at times to applaud the Führer’s most rousing proclamations. In fact, the opening lines of this speech were used at the beginning of the film Downfall when Hitler is made to dictate them for Traudl to type out for the qualification test:
My German Volksgenossen! Party Comrades! I believe it is quite rare when a man can appear before his supporters after almost 20 years and, in these 20 years, did not need to make any changes whatsoever in his programme.
On November 9, 1943, the Führer celebrated the twentieth anniversary of the Burgerbraukeller Putsch with a speech before the Nazi Party Old Fighters at the Lowenbraukeller. In addition to the dead of 1923, Hitler added the commemoration of the casualties of the war from 1939–43, hoping to shore up support for himself, the Party, the regime, and the war in Munich—the vaunted “Capital of the Movement.” 

When (for the last time, as it turned out) Hitler addressed the party’s Old Guard in Munich’s Löwenbräukeller on the putsch anniversary, 8 November, he was as defiant as ever. There would be no capitulation, no repeat of 1918, he declared once again – the nightmare of that year indelibly imprinted on his psyche – and no undermining of the front by subversion at home. Any overheard subversive or defeatist remark, it was clear, would cost the person making it his or her head. (Kershaw)
In a footnote on page 830 of Shirer writes:
I learn from Hitler’s captured daily calendar book that the celebration had been moved from the old Buergerbraukeller, where the putsch had taken place, to a more elegant beer hall in Munich, the Loewenbraukeller. The Buergerbraukeller, it will be remembered, had been wrecked by a time bomb which had just missed killing the Fuehrer on the night of November 8, 1939.
 Hitler speaking at the site.
Hitler and other Nazi officials celebrate Christmas at a party for ϟϟ officer cadets at the Lowenbraukeller on December 18, 1941.
Christmas then and now

Nazi Party Headquarters, November 1921 to July 1925
The site of another party headquarters at Corneliusstraße 12
The dismal back room at the Sterneckerbrau which had served as a committee-room was abandoned for new and larger offices at 12 Corneliusstrasse. Bit by bit they accumulated office furniture, files, a typewriter, and a telephone.
Hitler himself wrote in Mein Kampf:
After eighteen months our business quarters had become too small, so we moved to a new place in the Cornelius Strasse. Again our office was in a restaurant, but instead of one room we now had three smaller rooms and one large room with great windows. At that time this appeared a wonderful thing to us. We remained there until the end of November 1923.

Memorial to Freikorps
The German army’s impotence after the Great War was apparent on Christmas Eve when its troops, ordered to remove radicals from the Royal Stables, dispersed and went home. It was thus that a proposal was made to supplement the Reichsheer through a broad creation of Freikorps units made up of volunteers which existed in some fashion from late 1918 until 1923 who would defend the new Republic. The best known of the volunteers were the Freikorps, or regular volunteers
consisting of officers and soldiers, as well as students and civilians, driven by counterrevolutionary zeal, eager for adventure, or simply seeking the ‘‘companionship of the trenches’’ and regular meals. Numbering 200,000 to 400,000 men by the spring of 1919, the 103 major Freikorps units received little direct attention from the Reichsheer and were militarily and politically unreliable. During the first half of 1919 they were used to crush both real and imagined threats throughout Germany.
Vincent (137) An Historical Dictionary of Germany’s Weimar Republic
The remains of a 1942 Nazi memorial to the Freikorps victory over the communists in Munich in May 1919 remains on Ichostrasse, apparently as a memorial to victims of Nazism, although the various symbols appear intentionally vague:
By May 2, 1919, the Freikorps and a coalition of Prussian and Bavarian troops, collectively known as the known as the Weisse Garde, had taken the City of Munich. It was not officially announced secure until May 6 after roughly 1,200 Communists had been killed.
The White force had in it hardened desperadoes and they shot down without cause some twenty medical orderlies and eight surrendered Red soldiers. Most infamously, the Reds executed ten people by firing squad, including the Countess Westarp. This killing was the direct result of the White atrocities at Dachau which had caused Red soldiers to ask superiors if they could take revenge. Permission was granted and the victims were rounded up and brought to courtyard of the Luitpold gymnasium. In pairs, they were placed against a wall and shot. The news of this horrific event spread quickly and, by midday of 1 May, the killings had become public knowledge. There were protest meetings all over the city, and firefights erupted.
The Whites had decided to move on 2 May. They now advanced the attack to May Day. It was held to be just and proper that they were moving into the capital on the traditional workers’ holiday. As the Whites took Munich, atrocities appeared seemingly everywhere. All White killings were said to be justified by the Luitpold executions. The Luitpold killings had also had a demoralizing impact on Red troops not involved but who had heard of them. They began throwing down their arms, as the Whites entered the city to encounter scant opposition.
The Munich political scene, immediately after the demise of the Red Republics, was profoundly altered. The disappearance of the two republics resulted in an atmosphere changed lastingly... This was the heritage which carried over into the scene after the war.
This is where Hitler publicly spoke for the first time:
On 16 October he was one of 111 people to attend a meeting at the Hofbrauhauskeller, at which Dr Erich Kühn, editor of the radical nationalist journal Deutschlands Emeuerung (Germany’s Renewal), spoke about the Jewish Question. Hitler spoke too. A reporter from the Munich Observer reported that he ‘used inflammatory words’ and incited those present against especially the Jewish press. Three days later, and notwithstanding Drexler’s prior offer, Hitler wrote requesting membership of the [German Workers'] party. 
Housden (45)  Hitler Study of a Revolutionary?
A hundred and eleven people turned up, and Hitler rose to address his first public meeting as the second speaker of the evening. In a bitter stream of words the dammed-up emotions, the lonely man’s suffocated feelings of hatred and impotence, burst out; like an explosion after the restriction and apathy of the past years, hallucinatory images and accusations came pouring out; abandoning restraint, he talked till he was sweating and exhausted. ‘I spoke for thirty minutes,’ he writes, ‘and what I had always felt deep down in my heart, without being able to put it to the test, proved to be true.’ Jubilantly he made the overwhelming, liberating discovery. ‘I could make a good speech!
On the wall outside is a plaque dedicated to the victims of the Freikorps during the smashng of the Räterepublik:
Translated into English, it reads:
Following the military defeat of the Munich Soviet Republic, these workers and craftsmen were denounced and without legal judicial proceedings were taken by the Freikorps Lützow on 5 May 1919 to the garden of the Hofbräuhaus Keller and murdered.
Hotel Vier Jahreszeiten
The Hotel Vier Jahreszeiten on Maximilianstraße where the Thule Society was founded in the early 1920s and had its headquarters.
Members of the Thule Society, a right-wing, völkisch, anti-Semitic organisation, had got hold of the stamp of the Communist military chief of Munich, the twenty-one-year-old deserter from the navy Rudolf Eglhofer, and used it to forge orders and requisitions. Ten of the members of the Thule Society were taken as hostages from a meeting at the Hotel Vier Jahreszeiten, and then, as the government forces converged on Munich, they were executed in the courtyard of the Luitpold gymnasium as a reprisal for the deaths of eight members of the Red Guard who had been killed at Dachau.

The Making of Adolf Hitler: The Birth and Rise of Nazis, Eugene Davidson (128)

The ceremonial foundation of the Thule Society took place on 17 August 1918. The society met at the fashionable Hotel Vierjahreszeiten in Munich, in rooms decorated with the Thule emblem: a long dagger, its blade surrounded by oak leaves, superimposed on a shining, curved- armed swastika.
It was here in 1935 on 13 March that 
Lieutenant-Colonel Hoßbach, Hitler’s Wehrmacht adjutant, was ordered to present himself the next morning in the Hotel Vier Jahreszeiten in Munich. When he arrived, Hitler was still in bed. Only shortly before midday was the military adjutant summoned to be told that the Führer had decided to reintroduce conscription in the immediate future – a move which would in the eyes of the entire world graphically demonstrate Germany’s newly regained autonomy and cast aside the military restrictions of Versailles. 
Kershaw Hitler 
Richard Evans destroys David Irving's credibility when the latter referred to the hotel in Goebbels: Mastermind of the Third Reich during the events of Reichskristallnacht in his attempts to absolve Hitler from all blame of the violence:
WHAT of Himmler and Hitler? Both were totally unaware of what Goebbels had done until the synagogue next to Munich’s Four Seasons Hotel was set on fire around one a.m. Heydrich, Himmler’s national chief of police, was relaxing down in the hotel bar; he hurried up to Himmler’s room, then telexed instructions to all police authorities to restore law and order, protect Jews and Jewish property, and halt any on- going incidents. The hotel management telephoned Hitler’s apartment at Prinz- Regenten-Platz, and thus he too learned that something was going on. He sent for the local police chief, Friedrich von Eberstein. Eberstein found him livid with rage.
In fact, Evans points out
The only historical truth in this account was the assertion that Heydrich sent a telex to the German police authorities. Everything else was a blatant manipulation of the historical record. Even a cursory glance at the telex showed that it ordered the opposite of what Irving claimed it did. What Heydrich was telling the police was not to prevent the destruction of Jewish property or get in the way of violent acts against German Jews.
This was also where Daladier and his entourage stayed September 29, 1938 during the Munich conference whilst Chamberlain and the Czech representatives went to the Regina Palast Hotel on Maximiliansplatz 5:

The hotel also plays a significant role in the Fleming novel On Her Majesty’s Secret Service after James Bond arrives in Munich from Zurich where he is met at the airport by his fiancée Tracy, who drives him to her “favourite hotel in the world.” Bond drinks at the hotel bar and makes plans to dine at Walterspiel’s which had once been located inside the hotel.

Editorial Offices of Munchner Neueste Nachrichten
Memorial plaque to Dr. Fritz Gerlich, editor-in-chief and subject of film "Hitler: The Rise of Evil." After the Nazis seized power in Germany, they quickly decided to remove Gerlich as shown in this scene from the film where he is arrested on March 9, 1933 and brought to the Dachau concentration camp, where he was murdered on July 1, 1934 during the Night of the Long Knives according to David Irving, through the orders of Hermann Göring:
Who, other than Göring, would have ordered the pickax murder of seventy-one- year-old ex-dictator Gustav von Kahr and Munich journalist Fritz Gerlich? Kahr had betrayed the 1923 beer hall putsch. Gerlich had claimed that Göring broke his word of honour to escape; Göring had sued him for libel and lost. Now both those old scores were settled, permanently.
Göring (209)
After his death his wife received confirmation of her husband's death when his blood-spattered glasses were delivered to her home. 
At Gerlich's former residence this plaque was placed: "The journalist Dr. Fritz Gerlich lived in this house up to his arrest on 9.3.1933. As an opponent of the Third Reich he was murdered on 30.6.1934 in the KZ Dachau." The video on the right is from Hitler: Rise of Evil

Ron Rosenbaum writes of 
 'the lost safe-deposit box. A place where allegedly revelatory documents - ones that might provide the missing link, the lost key to the Hitler psyche, the true source of his metamorphosis - seem to disappear beyond recovery." This mythology was inspired by real events in Munich in 1933, when Fritz Gerlich, the last anti- Hitler journalist in that city, made a desperate attempt to alert the world to the true nature of Hitler by means of a report of an unspecified scandal. On 9 March, just as Gerlich's newspaper, Der Gerade Weg, was about to go to press, SA storm troopers entered the premises and ripped it from the presses.

Although no copy of the Gerlich report has ever been found, rumours have been circulating for many years about the ultimate fate of the information with which Gerlich hoped to warn the world of the danger of Hitler, one of which involves a secret copy of the report that was smuggled out of the premises (along with supporting documentary material) by one Count Waldburg-Zeil. Waldburg-Zeil allegedly took the report and its supporting documents to his estate north of Munich, where he buried them somewhere in the grounds. According to Gerlich's biographer Erwin von Aretin, however, Waldburg-Zeil destroyed them during the war, fearful of what might happen should they be discovered by the Nazi authorities.
Rosenbaum informs us of an alternative version of these events, involving documents proving that Geli Raubal was indeed killed on the orders of Adolf Hitler. According to von Aretin's son, the historian Professor Karl-Ottmar Freiherr von Aretin, his father gave the documents to his cousin, Karl Ludwig Freiherr von Guttenberg, co-owner of the Munchener Neueste Nachrichten, who put them in a safe-deposit box in Switzerland. Guttenberg was killed following his involvement in the attempted coup against Hitler on 20 July 1944. For the sake of security, he had not told anyone the number of the safe- deposit-box account. 
Baker Invisible Eagle
Maximilianeum and the Maximilianbrücke

Apparently Hitler's own painting on the left beside a turn-of-the-century postcard

Looking out towards the town centre from inside during MUNOM 2010

German Research institute for Psychiatry (Deutsche Forschungsanstalt für Psychiatrie) Kraepelinstr. 2
Opened in 1917, it served during the NS time in the intellectual preparation and “justification” of the murder of “lebensunwert”. In 1934 it sponsored the “Law for Preventing Hereditary Illness into the Next Generation” ("Gesetz zur Verhütung erbkranken Nachwuchses") and approved of patient killings.
Research on eugenics was done primarily at the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Anthropology, Human Heredity, and Eugenics in Berlin-Dahlem (directed by Eugen Fischer from 1927, its founding, to 1942, and by Otmar von Verschuer from 1942 to 1945) and the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Genealogy and Demography of the Deutsche Forschungsanstalt (directed by Ernst Riidin) in Munich.
Kristie Macrakis (125) Surviving the Swastika : Scientific Research in Nazi Germany

Sites Hitler painted- Asamkirche and Alte Residenz
The Asamkirche on Sendlinger Straße in the centre of the City, built between 1733-1746, was the subject of an Hitler drawing.
The other painting above is the Alten Residenz, the Alter Hof, which was home to Bavarian dukes, electors and kings. The painting shows its inner courtyard (bombed in 1944) by Hitler himself in 1914.
From a Nazi-era postcard and little Drake Winston at the site at night. According to Kershaw, Hitler
usually copied from postcards of well-known tourist scenes in Munich – including the Theatinerkirche, the Asamkirche, the Hofbräuhaus, the Alter Hof, the Münzhof, the Altes Rathaus, the Sendlinger Tor, the Residenz, the Propyläen – then set out to find customers in bars, cafés, and beerhalls. His accurate but uninspired, rather soulless watercolours were, as Hitler himself later admitted when he was German Chancellor and they were selling for massively inflated prices, of very ordinary quality. But they were certainly no worse than similar products touted about the beerhalls, often the work of genuine art students seeking to pay their way. Once he had found his feet, Hitler had no difficulty finding buyers. He was able to make a modest living from his painting and exist about as comfortably as he had done in his last years in Vienna. When the Linz authorities caught up with him in 1914, he acknowledged that his income – though irregular and fluctuating – could be put at around 1,200 Marks a year, and told his court photographer Heinrich Hoffmann at a much later date that he could get by on around 80 Marks a month for living costs at that time.
The Nornenbrunnen was completed in 1907 after a design by Hubert Netzer in the art nouveau style. Using Kirchheimer shell limestone, it shows the Nornen, the three Germanic fates: Urd, Verdandi and Skuld, who leans towards the large water bowl. Between the figures are three muzzles, from which the water pours in three flat basin at the ground.
In 1920 Arno Breker, who would become Hitler's official sculptor, moved into an artists’ dormitory and matriculated at the State Art Academy in Düsseldorf, where he spent five years studying sculpture with Netzer.
Meanwhile, Adolf von Hildebrand's Wittelsbacher-Brunnen at Lenbachplatz can be seen in the photo on the left behind a marching band of SA.
The Mercedes-Benz showroom at Lenbachplatz, April 1935 as shown in Kershaw's Hitler, and now replaced by BMW

Currently serving as the Bundesfinanzhof, the highest tax court, from 1933 the judgements here provided the legal justification for the expropriation of political opponents and Jews, the latter through the "Reichsfluchtsteuer". From the 1939 directory:
Reich Finance Court in Munich (Reichsfinanzhof zu München) Ismaningerstrasse 109; Telephone: 480255/6 The Reich Finance Court is the supreme court in Reich tax matters. In final appeal proceedings it hands down decisions in cases especially referred to it by law. The Senate of the Reich Finance Court, composed of five members, including the chairman, decides in legal complaint cases. At the final vote the case is decided by the votes of at least three members, including the chairman. The Reich Finance Court is the supreme authority in respect to real property taxes, in so far as the taxes are administered by state offices and Oberfinanzpräsidenten (Chief Finance Presidents). In addition, upon application of a Land (state) government, the Reich Finance Minister can designate the Reich Finance Court as the supreme court for the taxes of the states (Länder), communes, communal associations and religious societies.
Deutschen Museum

Hitler toured the museum on April 1, 1935. The museum had hosted a set of ideological Special exhibitions, which were conceived in Munich as itinerant exhibitions. 1936 saw the opening of the anti-Semitic and antisoviet propaganda exhibition "Der Bolschewismus" in the presence of representatives from 37 states. It had 350,000 visitors, who were brought in by special trains from throughout Europe. On the left, Joseph Goebbels and other Nazi officials are greeted by saluting Germans as they proceed toward the Bibliothek des Deutschen Museums for the opening of Der ewige Jude on November 8, 1937.
View from the "Uferstrasse" (now Museuminsel) to the library building of the German Museum, 1937. The huge poster of the propaganda exhibition "The Eternal Jew" was illuminated at night.
The exterior facing the Isar, shown sporting Nazi flags and the logo for Der ewige Jude exhibition, was redeveloped in 1951 as a tower supporting a sundial with the eagle replaced.
Over the past decades the Deutsches Museum, one of the largest science and technology museums in the world, has carefully maintained an interpretation of its history during the Third Reich. In this portrayal, the museum was caught between the opposing poles of either cooperation with or resistance to the regime, which, in the end, meant that the museum counted itself among the victims of National Socialism. 
Das Deutsche Museum in der Zeit des Nationalsozialismus, a new, comprehensive study of the museum in the Third Reich by Prof. Dr. Elisabeth Vaupel and Dr. Stefan L. Wolff with essays by internal and external scholars, shows that this interpretation of the museum’s past is in need of thorough revision. According to this nook, the idea that the Deutsches Museum was a “purely” scientific and technological educational institution and therefore also an “apolitical” one, was nothing less than a fiction. 
When the National Socialists came to power in 1933, the Deutsches Museum was directed by a three-man governing body (whose members were honorary ones) which was further directed by the museum founder Oskar von Miller (1855-1933). The local Munich Nazi party had been opposed to Miller as early as the end of the 1920s, especially after he had refused to allow a statue of Otto von Bismarck to be erected on museum grounds. Once the city government, which was controlled by the NSDAP, refused to support the museum’s yearly board meeting (as it had long been accustomed to do) and after Adolf Hitler refused to accept the honorary post of museum president (an honor gladly assumed by every chancellor since 1923), Miller feared he would no longer be of any service to his museum, given the altered political circumstances. He therefore resigned his post on May 7, 1933 – his 78th birthday.  
His successor was to be Jonathan Zenneck (1871-1959), a physics professor at Munich’s Technical University, who had already taken on many of Miller’s responsibilities during the few months prior to the announcement. As a member of the German National People’s Party (DNVP), Zenneck sympathized with the new “national government.” He supported the Civil Service Act, which allowed for the removal of those opposed to the new regime and those who could be defined as having “Jewish ancestry.” In the spring of 1933, Zenneck was responsible for carrying out the law’s provisions among the museum staff. As a result, two employees were fired, one for political reasons, the other on racial grounds.  
Having a member of the DNVP as head of the museum was not sufficient evidence to show the new regime that the museum had adequately adjusted to the altered political situation. Miller therefore installed the Munich publisher Hugo Bruckmann as the head of the governing body. Related to Miller by marriage, Bruckmann was one of the early supporters of the NSDAP and had known Hitler personally for a number of years. Bruckmann did not possess any particular qualifications for his position as the head of the museum, but he did enjoy very good connections to influential individuals in the party and the state.      
 After Miller’s death on April 9, 1934, museum leaders attempted to remove any reservations about the museum that might have persisted among party circles because of Miller’s earlier actions. While Miller (with Zenneck’s support) had previously been vehemently opposed to political influences of any sort, this position was quickly abandoned. Museum leaders instead sought to persuade important NS politicians to support and work for the museum. One of the men they hoped to convince was Fritz Todt, Inspector General for German Roadways who had organized the exhibition “Die Strasse” or “Roads” in Munich in 1934.  Museum officials intended to use both Todt’s fame and his connections as “head engineer of the Third Reich” to redesign the museum’s exhibition on streets which would feature the politically relevant theme of the Reich’s autobahn-building efforts. Officials hoped that Todt could prove useful assistance in realizing this project, particularly in providing the necessary funds.  
At the same time, museum officials sought more intensively to convince Hitler to visit the museum in an official capacity. A new temporary exhibit on “German Freestone,” was organised -- according to the Führer’s explicit wishes. This exhibit did in fact interest Hitler (whose love of architecture is well-documented) enough to persuade him to grant the museum an official visit at the beginning of April 1935. It was with some trepidation that Hugo Bruckmann led the Führer through the automobile division: it was quite out of date. But because Hitler was interested in introducing mass mobilisation to Germany, officials hoped that the exhibit could be updated and made more relevant, following the political trend of the times. Thanks to the assistance of two men who sat on the museum’s governing boards, the museum could announce that Hitler had promised two million Reichsmark for the revision of both the automobile and flight divisions. With this money, the museum announced the opening of a new building with exhibition space in 1938 and financed the new automobile exhibit. That same year, Todt’s associates finished their work on the new street exhibit. The almost exclusive focus on the German autobahn led many at the time to refer to the exhibit ironically as the “German autobahn show.” Both divisions saw a decisive move away from earlier museum practices, which focused displaying only masterpieces of science and technology. The display of a shovel that Hitler had used to break ground at the beginning of the autobahn project near Frankfurt am Main did not meet this criterion, nor did the Mercedes that was on display in the automobile division because it had once been the Führer’s.  
While the museum’s collections space was experiencing a revision of those exhibits that were seen as having political relevance (Miller’s practice was to do this in a historical context), after 1934 the library building housed several special exhibitions focusing specifically on contemporary technological developments, such as television or “New German Synthetic Materials.” For the first time in the museum’s history, these special exhibits were no longer based on historical criteria. Museum officials hoped with this strategy to meet the criticism of those such as Todt who had called the museum an “attic stuffed with historical artefacts” and who accused the museum of being wed to a backward-looking display policy without any connection to the real world. The library building also served as host to several other externally designed propaganda exhibits such as the infamous “The Eternal Jew” (1937).  
In 1937, the three-man governing body was expanded to include five men, and Todt was one of them. Upon assuming his new role, Todt sought to use the museum as an instrument for his own political goals, especially within the confines of the National Socialist Association for German Technology (NSBDT), an organisation that he himself led. When war broke out in September 1939, however, his attention turned elsewhere. His plans remained unrealized after he died in a plane crash in 1942. Todt had hoped to build a new “House of Technology” on the Isar, directly opposite the river from the Deutsches Museum. These plans, which were never realized, sought to place various technological developments in their different political contexts. Upon attempting to integrate and incorporate the Deutsches Museum within this new institution ,Todt encountered decisive resistance from Jonathan Zenneck. The power struggle that ensued between the two of them (which was suspended once the war broke out) shows that the Deutsches Museum – beyond being a site of opportunism and conformity – was also involved in conflicts with different individuals and state organisations. In the post-war period, these conflicts were stylised into a confrontation with National Socialism in general. Those areas in which the Deutsches Museum had sought to work with the regime were forgotten and repressed. 
Hitler on his first official visit to the Deutsches Museum on January 4, 1935 accompanied by Museum Board Head Hugo Bruckmann (left of Hitler). Hitler was interested with this visit especially for the congress hall, the airships, road construction, automotive and shipbuilding departments. There he was especially captivated with the model of the battleship Deutschland, which had been donated to the museum in August 1934 from the Imperial Navy Office and represented a prime specimen of the new German weapon technology.
At the entrance to the exhibition "Der ewige Jude" in November 1937 and today. The exhibition was held in the Library of the German Museum until January 31, 1938. It was the largest pre-war anti-Semitic exhibit the Nazis held. It emphasised supposed attempts by Jews to bolshevise Germany, It did this by revealing an 'eastern' Jew - wearing a kaftan, and holding gold coins in one hand and a whip in the other. Under his arm is a map of the world, with the imprint of the hammer and sickle. The exhibition attracted 412,300 visitors which was over 5,000 per day, seeing 400,000 visitors by January 1938.
SS-Hauptsturmführer Dr. Franz Hippler was the most eager and unscrupulous among Goebbels's film experts who knew how to arrange the most disparate clips and most antagonistic arguments into a triumph of dialectical destructiveness. It was he who put together the morally most perfidious, intellectually most under­ handed, and ideologically most perverse mishmash that has ever been produced. This was Der ewige Jude (The Eternal Jew), made in 1940. Only human scum could bring out such a diabolical work. Together with Jud Süß (1940) and Die Rothschilds (1940), as well as the book by Hans Dieboro with the same title. Der ewige Jude raised the pogrom mood against the Jews to boiling point. These films and a number of other books were calculated to justify in advance the mass murder of the European Jews.
Hoffmann, Broadwin, Berghahn (173) The Triumph of Propaganda - Film and National Socialism 1933-1945
Der ewige Jude is certainly the "hate" picture of all time, and one of the great examples of the way in which the film medium can be used as a propaganda tool far greater than the printed or spoken word alone. Fortunately, the film is inaccessible beyond a few film archives where it is kept in the restricted division usually re- served for pornography, which is exactly the genre to which this film belongs.
The state funeral for Hugo Bruckmann in the courtyard of the Deutsches Museum on June 9, 1941 just before the invasion of the Soviet Union. 
 Of the museum itself, Hitler had remarked June 13, 1943 that
One of the great attractions of the Deutsches Museum in Munich is the presence of a large number of perfectly constructed working models, which visitors can manipulate themselves. It is not just by chance that so many of the young people of the inland town of Munich have answered the call of the sea.
Deutsches Museum Kongreßsaal
Completed in 1936 by architect German Bestelmeyer, this building in front of the museum "was used during the Third Reich for meetings, exhibits, speeches, and the state funeral of Gauleiter Adolf Wagner." (
The eagles that are allowed to continue to adorn the building were designed by Munich artist Kurt Schmid Ehmen (1901-1968) who had specialised in reichsadlers and swastikas (such as those found at the "Ehrenmal" der Feldherrnhalle and Nazi party rally grounds in Nuremberg and the Reich Chancellery in Berlin).
Connecting the Deutschen Museum and Kongreßsaal to the rest of the city on the other side of the Isar is the Ludwigsbruecke, over which the annual November 9 march would pass. The pylons are the only intact structure remaining of the original Ludwigsbruecke from before the war. On November 3 1935, Hitler delivered a speech at the official opening of the rebuilt Ludwig Bridge in Munich. It was his hope, he stated, 
that the many sad events which this bridge had been made to suffer in the past would not be repeated in future and that the train twelve years before would hopefully be the last dismal incident on this bridge.

The Bismarckdenkmal of Fritz Behn (1878-1970) was formerly in front of the Deutschen Museum during the Nazi era but has since been relegated across the Isar and museum itself south of the Ludwigsbruecke  on the Boschbrücke.

The largest thermometer in Germany on the Deutschen Museum's tower in 1930 and seen from the Boschbrücke today.

Standing today in 2010 where Julius Streicher leads the Blutfahne held by Jakob Grimminger in a photo from Geoff Walden's definitive site, where he states that "one of the columns at the end of the Ludwigsbrücke remains today" although I couldn't find it. According to William Shirer in Rise And Fall Of The Third Reich (67),
it was here on the Ludwig Bridge, which leads over the River Isar toward the centre of the city, stood a detachment of armed police barring the route. Goering sprang forward and, addressing the police commander, threatened to shoot a number of hostages he said he had in the rear of his column if the police fired on his men. During the night Hess and others had rounded up a number of hostages, including two cabinet members, for just such a contingency. Whether Goering was bluffing or not, the police commander apparently believed he was not and let the column file over the bridge unmolested.
According to Hitler himself at his trial in 1924,
On Ludendorff’s right side Dr. Weber marched, on his left, I and [Max von] Scheubner-Richter and the other gentlemen. We were permitted to pass by the cordon of troops blocking the Ludwig Bridge. They were deeply moved; among them were men who wept bitter tears. People who had attached themselves to the columns yelled from the rear that the men should be knocked down. We yelled that there was no reason to harm these people. We marched on to the Marienplatz. The rifles were not loaded. The enthusiasm was indescribable. I had to tell myself: The people are behind us, they no longer can be consoled by ridiculous resolutions. The Volk want a reckoning with the November criminals, as far as it still has a sense of honour and human dignity and not for slavery. In front of the Royal Residence a weak police cordon let us pass through. Then there was a short hesitation in front, and a shot was fired. I had the impression that it was no pistol shot but a rifle or carbine bullet. Shortly afterwards a volley was fired. I had the feeling that a bullet struck in my left side. Scheubner-Richter fell, I with him. At this occasion my arm was dislocated and I suffered another injury while falling. I only was down for a few seconds and tried at once to get up.
The 'cauldron' as it appears today can be seen in the background photo of the 1933 march.

The procession passes under the Isartor Gate, shown after the war and me in front today.
Entrance to the Deutsches Museum: Verkehrszentrum
View of the new, opened in 1938 automobile exhibition. At the end of the hall alongside the Nazi eagle are busts of Benz, Daimler, Maybach and Bosch. The motor vehicle department, opened in 1938 and the 1938-1940 repeatedly updated road construction department of the German Museum campaigned openly for motorising policy and the kingdom of highway construction of the Nazis.

Ruhmeshalle (Bavarian Hall of Fame)

Nearby across the Bavaria Park is the Ruhmeshalle, shown after the war and today. This is traditionally the site of Munich's Oktoberfest which during the Third Reich became Nazified. 
Souvenirs added swastikas to their depictions of the Münchner Kindl (Munich Child), the festival’s trademark. By 1936, swastika flags had replaced the traditional Bavarian blue and white banners. In 1938, even the festival’s name had changed. It was now called the Greater German Folk Festival in honour of Austria’s recent ‘return’ to the Reich.90 Throughout Germany, Fasching (Mardi Gras) parades were similarly infused with Nazism, nowhere more so than in Cologne, home of the renowned Karneval. While the regime dictated that carnival organizers had to make sure a ‘happy mood’ reigned, the most menacing face of Nazism was readily apparent: floats carrying anti-Semitic slogans and stereotypical representations of Jews, such as ‘Deviserich’, the Jewish banker, joined the parade from 1935 onwards. 
Semmens (65) Seeing Hitler's Germany- Tourism in the Third Reich
The Ruhmeshalle (Bavarian Hall of Fame) in front of which stands the 19 metre high Bavaria from whose head one can have a remarkable view. The area it's in, Versammlungsplatz, was one of the main preferential rendezvous points of the left political spectrum since 1818. On November 7, 1918 it was the scene of the demonstration for the end of the Great War, leading to the collapse of the monarchy and to the proclamation of the Free State of Bavaria. In February 1919 the place was the starting point of the protest march against the murder of Karl Liebknecht and Rosa Luxembourg. From 1922 the socialist trade unions met here and its demonstrations on May 1 1923 were threatened by armed National Socialists and banned in 1924, 1925 and 1932. From 1933 May 1 was taken over by the Nazis as the 'Day of German Work' on the Theresienwiese.
The Hall today houses the marble busts of noteworthy Bavarians including a recent one of von Stauffenberg. The bust itself appears to have been mutilated; a probable example of the debate whether his actions in launching the July Plot were those of an hero or villain.

Stadelheim Gaol

Even before the failure of the Burgerbraukeller Putsch, Hitler had already served time in gaol for a five-month sentence beginning on June 4, 1922, for inciting a riot. He served this sentence here at Munich’s Stadelheim prison, a little known fact which he himself spoke of in his Table Talk (263) of January 30, 1942:
My first long term of imprisonment was at Stadelheim. As he led me into my cell, the warder amiably pointed out to me that a number of celebrated men had lived there before: Ludwig Thoma, for example—and likewise Kurt Eisner.
NSDAP Publishing House
Thierschstraße 11-17, the former headquarters of the Reich Chief for the Press and President of the Reich Chamber of the Press. This was where Mein Kampf and other Nazi publications were produced, including the party newspaper Volkischer Beobachter,
an anti-Semitic gossip sheet which appeared twice a week. Exactly where the sixty thousand marks for its purchase came from was a secret which Hitler kept well, but it is known that Eckart and Roehm persuaded Major General Ritter von Epp, Roehm’s commanding officer in the Reichswehr and himself a member of the party, to raise the sum. Most likely it came from Army secret funds. At the beginning of 1923 the Voelkischer Beobachter became a daily, thus giving Hitler the prerequisite of all German political parties, a daily newspaper in which to preach the party’s gospels.
1933 edition of Mein Kampf lent me by a student's mother. Her own grandfather had actually read the first book and I'd love to know what the exclamation marks and underlined passages refer to. He had been denied a promotion in a letter I saw due to his un-national socialist beliefs.

Bergverlag Rudolf Rother

At another publishing house, the metal grills at the office at Landshuter Allee 49 retain the swastikas:

Hitlerjugend-Heim at Mariahilfplatz 4

The site in 1934 and today where it now serves as an hotel

Site of the
Nationalsozialistischer Deutscher Dozentenbund (NSDDB)

One of the responsibilities of the National Socialist Association of German Lecturers, founded in 1935 and located at what is today Max-Joseph-Straße 4, was to push for the dismissal of politically undesirable university lecturers, to run the universities according to dictatorial principles and to make the curriculum conform with Nazi ideology. The conditions for bringing the universities into line were favourable in Munich, for even before 1933 the National Socialist German Students’ Association at the Technical University had held almost half the seats on the Students’ Committee.

Universities were purged of Jewish, liberal, and social-democrat personnel after 1933. These were harassed, dismissed, forced into exile and retirement, and even imprisoned. They were replaced by inexperienced and unqualified but reliable Nazi professors. This was a terrible loss for Germany which had held a position of world leadership in science. On the other hand, the purge was a gain for the free world as many scientists, such as Albert Einstein, were more or less forced into exile. University teachers were controlled by the Nationalsozialistische-Dozentenbund (NSDB—Nazi Lecturers League), a professional association of university lecturers designed to keep them in line with Nazi ideology. Students had to be members of the Nationalsozialistischen deutschen Studentenbund (NSDStB— Nazi Student League). The NSDStB, headed from 1928 to 1933 by Baldur von Schirach, was devoted to the furtherance of the Nazi way of life among students and indoctrination with National Socialist philosophy, and included physical training and military drills. The new curriculum emphasized the basic elements of Nazi ideology: racism, nationalism, Germanic culture, duty, loyalty to the Führer, soldierly spirit, obedience and discipline. Students were often required to put aside their books and spend months in military training and labour camps. With continual rounds of marches, rallies and other party activities, the desperate professors had to ease their requirements drastically in order to graduate sufficient numbers.
The educational reforms instituted by the Nazi regime had catastrophic results. The traditional German humanism was re- placed with politico-racial institutions dedicated to militarism, racial hatred and aggressive expansionism. Many young people began to question the value of obtaining the once-prestigious Abitur—the graduation certificate needed to enter a university. By the late 1930s, many students were dropping out of school to work as craft apprentices or industrial trainees. Education—from elementary schools to the universities—became merely an appendage of the Propaganda Ministry, intellectual standards declined precipitously and a whole generation was the victim of odious indoctrination. 
LePage  (93)  Hitler Youth

Reichszeugmeisterei (RZM)
The Reich General Ordnance Depot (Reichszeugmeisterei) "was one of the largest concrete skeleton constructions erected during the Nazi period" (Kopleck, 73) which housed party vehicles. Today can be seen the traces of the reichsadler above the entrance and, along the sides, surviving reliefs depicting German enterprise.

Nazi uniforms and regalia were designed, manufactured, controlled and sold by the Reichszeugmeisterei (RZM—central ordnance office of the NSDAP). The Reichseugmeisterei, literally the National Material Control Office, can be thought of as a government procurement office. The Reichszeugmeisterei was established at almost the moment that Hitler took over the government of Germany. By July 1934, the RZM was in place with a director, staff and offices in Munich at Tegernseer Landstrasse 210. Officially, it had the solitary purpose of selecting suppliers and sellers of certain NSDAP uniform-related products. It had exclusive legal authority to design and control quality and costs of uniforms, badges, medals and other regalia. Since its mission was on behalf of the Nazi Party (the RZM was a branch of the Treasury Department) its jurisdiction included material for use by both the Gliederungen der NSDAP (Nazi party organisations) and Angeschlossende Verbände (associated units). Secondarily, the RZM was charged with making sure that the production of all that they ordered was carried out in “Aryan” manufacturing plants, with materials of German origin whenever possible. Producers authorized by the RZM were not allowed to employ “non–Aryan” workers, and had to give preference to Nazi Party members when promoting workers and dealers. Each firm authorized to produce or sell RZM material was issued an RZM registration number and it was required that the number appear on all finished products they made or sold. The RGBI I- 1269 law promulgated on 20 December 1934 punished by imprisonment or forced labour the illegal manufacture, wearing of Nazi uniforms and bearing of regalia. The official RZM shops for retailing Nazi Party badges and equipment were shown by a white metal sign with the inevitable swastika/eagle emblem and the words, “Zum Verkauf parteiamtlicher Gegenstände zugelassen NSDAP Reichszeugmeisterei” (sale of official party items authorised by the National Quartermaster Department of the German National-Socialist Workers’ Party). The RGBI I-844 law from 26 June 1935 punished by imprisonment any person who insulted, despised, or mocked Nazi regalia, uniforms and flags.
Jean-Denis G.G. Lepage, Hitler Youth, 1922-1945, pp50-51
Rosenstraße in the city centre with flags for the Reichstag elections at the end of March 1936 and today.

 In 1895 Josef Schülein established the Unionsbrauerei in Haidling which quickly developed into one of the largest breweries of Munich. Because Schülein was a Jew, its beer was often defamed as “Jew beer”. 

 Atelier Josef Thorak
Joseph Thorak was, alongside Arno Breker, the most important sculptor of the Third Reich.
Hitler visited Thorak’s Berlin studio in 1936 and the two men discussed “great projects.” In January 1937, Thorak wrote Adolf Wagner—a Gauleiter and the Bavarian minister of interior, education, and culture—and requested a new studio, reporting, of course, on his recent meeting with Hitler.This initiative paid off, and in October, Wagner accompanied the recently appointed professor at the Munich Academy to the lake region fifteen kilometres southeast of Munich to inspect potential sites. This led to the construction of (the first) studio at Baldham, which was paid for with state funds—a sum in excess of RM 215,000.298 The initial structure, however, was soon perceived as too small, and the following year, Hitler commissioned Albert Speer, a good friend of Thorak’s, to design another. The new atelier was so large—over four stories high—that it easily accommodated figures with heights in excess of fifty feet, as was the case for the Autobahn monument. The massive stone atelier, which postwar experts considered razing but deemed “virtually indestructible,” cost around RM 1,500,000.300 This structure reflected the usual grand patronage of the Nazi leaders, but also their typical means of proceeding: after the war, the man who owned the land used for the Thorak structures claimed that it was “earlier his family property which he had sold only under pressure.” Such considerations were of slight importance at the time, however, and amidst the construction of Speer’s building in February 1939, Thorak held a huge party (ein Richtfest) which attracted a throng of Nazi Germany’s political and cultural luminaries.
Located just behind a children's playground today