Showing posts with label Moosburg. Show all posts
Showing posts with label Moosburg. Show all posts

More Sites in Bavaria (2)

Moosburg (Upper Bavaria)
 Мосбург-ан-дер-Изар (нем. Moosburg an der Isar) — город в Германии, в земле Бавария.  Подчинён административному округу Верхняя Бавария. Входит в состав района Фрайзинг. Население составляет 17 554 человека (на 31 декабря 2010 года). Занимает площадь 43,86 км². Официальный код — 09 1 78 143.
Münchenerstrasse during the NSDAP era
Stalag VII
 In September 1939, a prisoner of war camp Stalag VII-A was built to accommodate 10,000. By early 1945, the number of registered prisoners had grown to more than 80,000 - many working in regional industries and farms. It is likely that the presence of this camp close to the town centre spared it from large-scale bombing.  After the liberation of the camp by the Americans at the end of April 1945, it was turned into Civilian Internment Camp #6 for 12,000 German men and women suspected of criminal activity for the Nazi regime. The camp was released by the Americans in 1948 and served to house German refugees exiled from eastern areas. It became a new part of the town, named Moosburg-Neustadt.

The entrance to the camp, and the town itself shown in the background
Moosburg Stammlager VIIA, 1945. Pictures from Edward J. Paluch 780 Bomb Squadron. From Fall 1944- Feb 1945 interned in Stalag Luft III. This town about 20km from where I live was the site of Stalag VII A, a POW camp covering an area of 85 acres which also served also as a transit camp through which prisoners, including officers, were processed on their way to another camp. At some time during the war prisoners from every nation fighting against Germany passed through it. By the time it had been liberated on April 29 1945, there were 130,000 prisoners from at least 26 nations on the camp roster. It was thus the largest prisoner of war camp in Germany.
Moosburg an der Isar (eller Moosburg a.d.Isar) er den ældste by i Landkreis Freising Regierungsbezirk Oberbayern i den tyske delstat Bayern. Den ligger 45 km nordøst for München halvejs mellem Freising Landshut i Niederbayern, omkranset af floderne Isar og Amper. Den internationale Flughafen München Franz Josef Strauß er kun 15 km væk og nåes let ad motorvej A92 der passerer byen.  Geografisk er byen præget af de mange bække, floder og kanaler i området. Ud over Amper munder også floderne Sempt, Strogen og Dorfen ud i Isar.
Moosburg concentration camp warden from the video game Death to Spies: Moment of Truth, where he wears an armband signifying he's from the 5th ϟϟ Panzer Division Wiking. In the centre is Oberst Hans Nepf, Lagerkommandant 1939-1943, and his succesor Oberst Otto Burger. 
This was the POW cemetery just south of the town in Oberreit, among whom 22 or 23 buried were British. It was closed in 1958 when 866 bodies were exhumed and reburied at the military cemetery in Schwabstadl near Landsberg. The bodies of 33 Italians were reburied at the Italian Memorial Cemetery near Munich. In 1982 the Moosburg City Council purchased a plot at the site of the old Oberreit cemetery and erected a wooden cross with a simple stone remembering the dead of Stalag VII A. Today the municipal authorities have seen fit to place a dog association right next to it...
...whilst in the town itself this memorial from 1958 commemorates the Germans' suffering; by 1950 1,931 out of 8,677 Moosburg citizens were refugees fleeing the Soviets. The monument in 1960 and today, as well as views down the same road, Sudetenlandstraße, then and now.
Today there are still vestiges of the original barracks being used, and along Schlesierstraße
For a site devoted entirely to Moosburg: Moosburg Online
Hitlerjugend in 1937 and the site today
Bürgermeister Dr. Müller in front of the memorial on March 10, 1940 and today, the Nazi flags being replaced by the red ensign
Moosburg railway station in 1935 and now
The rathaus then and now

The bridge that was the main strategic objective in the battle between Patton and the German SS in Moosburg. The Germans eventually bombed the bridge in order to keep the American tanks from crossing it. The battle didn't last long, regardless, and the 10,000's of POWs in the prison camp there were soon liberated.
2 May 1945
SUBJECT: Letter of Commendation.
TO: Commanding Officer, Company C, 300th Engineer Combat Battalion
  1. General George S. Patton, the Commanding General of the Third United States Army, has expressed his satisfaction and pleasure at the results obtained by you and your men in the construction of 288 feet of treadway bridge at MOOSBURG, Germany, on 30th April, 1945. I regret that, due to operational necessities, I am unable to personally convey my gratification to the men of C Company at this time, but I wish them to know that I take great pride in their achievement.
  2. The spirit displayed by the men during the job was particularly noteworthy for it indicated teamwork and a high morale. I hope this spirit and proficiency will continue to be as well marked in your future tasks.
/s/ Riel S. Crandall
Major, CE, Commanding
Reproduced by Co C, 300th Engr. C. Bn.
5 May 1945

Next to the bridge is the Gasthof zur Länd, shown in 1941, April 29, 1945 with Major-General A.C. Smith of the 14th Armoured Div. of the 3rd U.S. army overseeing the building of the auxiliary bridge over the Isar by the 300th Combat Engineers, and 73 years later.
The second building on the right at Herrnstraße 293 is where the Jewish administration was housed after the war from January 1946 to February 1951. 
When the Allied forces conquered Germany, they were able to liberate some tens of thousands of Jewish prisoners. Between 1945 and 1950, however, the former Third Reich became a temporary place of refuge for about 200,000 Shoah survivors. Besides the prisoners freed from the work and death camps, these were people who had fled from the Nazis to Russia, fought in Eastern Europe with the partisans, or in some other way managed to survive underground. Starting in the fall of 1945, the US military government set up special Displaced Persons (DP) camps for them. For a short time, the US General Eisenhower had even considered allowing the Jews to set up their own territory in Bavaria. This plan had been proposed to him by David Ben-Gurion, who was travelling through occupied Germany at that time. However, a Bavarian Jewish state was never established. Nevertheless, the Americans conceded wide-ranging rights of self-determination to the Shoah survivors. The British, Russians, and French granted no such privileges. Supplies, too, were more plentiful in the American zone, and so about 85 percent of all Jewish DPs settled here, considering their residence, however, as but a temporary measure. The overwhelming majority believed that their future would only be guaranteed in a country of their own, convinced that “only Eretz Israel will succeed in absorbing and healing them, help them regain their national and human balance.” As the state of Israel would not be established until 1948, some Jews dreamed also of a new life in the USA, Canada or Australia.
Landshut (Lower Bavaria)
During World War II, a subcamp of Dachau concentration camp was located in the city to provide slave labour for local industry.  The U.S. Army maintained facilities in Landshut, including Pinder Kaserne and a dependent housing area, until 1968.
Landshut from a postcard dated 21viii39 with a town map from the same year provided by HPL2008 at who was also responsible for the subsequent information.
 Landshut: the town where Himmler spent much of his youth. Himmler’s house is shown prominently at centre right in the period photograph with Burg Trausnitz in the background.

This is the town where Himmler was raised and went to school at what was then Humanistisches Gymnasium). Behind me at Dreifaltigkeitsplatz 1 1/2 is where he lived according to Die Geschichte des Hans-Carossa-Gymnasiums in Landshut 1629-2004 by Werner Ebermeier. (thanks to Heimatschuss for the information).
Dr Karl Gebhardt, a friend of Himmler’s youth and head of Hohenlychen sanatorium, explained at the Nuremberg doctors’ trial (Report S.3991): "Himmler came from Landshut, the same town as myself... If my parents’ house was an extraordinarily liberal, free, quiet one, then the Himmler house was that of a strong orthodox Catholic schoolmaster whose son was brought up very strictly and kept very short of money."
Dreifaltigkeitsplatz had been renamed Adolf-Hitler-Platz during the Third Reich as shown on the period postcard on the left. On the right is the same view with the Americans marching down the square May 1, 1945. Behind the wife and kid is St. Martin's church which has a stained-glass window featuring Hitler, Goering and Goebbels created after the war by the artist Max Lacher to replace the original window destroyed late in the war. 
Their faces were given to the torturers in a scene depicting the persecution of St. Castalus. (thanks to HPL2008 for this information). His relics reside in the church after having originally stayed in Moosburg. In his 2008 book Hitler, The Germans and the Final Solution, Sir Ian Kershaw records how 
courageous and noteworthy were the remarks of the Catholic priest Josef Atzinger in Landshut in November 1940, in which he condemned the racial legislation of the Third Reich as ‘godless, unjustified, and harmful.’
 From the other side, looking from the hauptstrasse
Located at no.6 on the map, this had been the Städtisches Krankenhaus (Municipal Hospital) where ϟϟ physician Dr. Karl Gebhardt had worked for a while from the autumn of 1922 onwards. He had known Heinrich Himmler from school and stated at the Nuremberg doctors’ trial that "Himmler came from Landshut, the same town as myself... If my parents’ house was an extraordinarily liberal, free, quiet one, then the Himmler house was that of a strong orthodox Catholic schoolmaster whose son was brought up very strictly and kept very short of money."
Looking the other direction towards Trausnitz castle directly across the former hospital was the local Deutsches Arbeit Front headquarters, no.3.
On the left is the former local NSDAP headquarters at no.2 on the map. It was here on December 8, 1935 that Hitler addressed the Ortsgruppe of the NSDAP at the celebration of its fifteenth anniversary,declaring that “He who has the courage to conquer the state with seven men also has the courage and the power and the confidence to maintain that state.”
The main task for Himmler in the Party offices at Landshut, where a portrait of Hitler frowned down on his activities, was to increase the Party’s supporters. His initial salary was 120 marks a month, and the local S.S. were sent out to collect subscriptions and canvas advertisements for the Party newspaper, the Völkischer Beobachter.  In 1926 he was made Deputy Reich Propaganda Chief, and this gradual accretion of subordinate offices led to a modest increase in his salary. Yet he seems to have made little impression at this stage other than by being a willing and dutiful administrator. There are glimpses of him in Goebbels’s excited diary during the period of Party expansion before he went to Berlin – on 13 April 1926, for example, during a speaking tour, he writes: ‘with Himmler in Landshut; Himmler a good fellow and very intelligent; I like him’  

According to the ϟϟ 1937 address list, the site shown on the right was the headquarters of the 31st ϟϟ-Standarte at Nahensteig 182.
HPL2008 points out that, according to Landshut's local address book,
in mediaeval times this street was located in the Jewish quarter of town, which is why its name is name is actually derived from the Hebrew word nahar (= brook). One wonders how many Standarte members were aware of that particular bit of trivia...
The apartment in Amalienstrasse on the left where Himmler lived from 1904 to 1913. The recent photos I took show the flat where he lived on Seligenthaler Str. 11 on his own for two years. 
Himmler as a senior schoolboy at Landshut (front row, second from right) and the Gymnasium he attended in 1910 where he studied classic literature. Himmler was generally an above-average student. In religious education and history he was always graded ‘very good’ and in languages he was judged ‘very good’ to ‘good’; his weakest subject was physics, for which one year he was given only ‘satisfactory’. A school report from 1913/14 reads: ‘An apparently very able student who by tireless hard work, burning ambition and very lively participation achieved the best results in the class. His conduct was exemplary.'
The rathaus then and now
Whilst no reference to the NSDAP era is found anywhere in the town, this memorial recognises the mass deportation of the night of June 18, 1951, the third-largest mass deportation in modern Romanian history took place, surpassed only by the World War II deportation of Jews to Transnistria (considered collectively, and ended with massive extermination), and the January 1945 deportation of ethnic Germans from Romania. Some 45,000 people were taken from their homes and deported to the Bărăgan. These included Romanians, Germans (mostly Banat Swabians), Serbs, Bulgarians, Romanian and some Ukrainian refugees from Bessarabia and Northern Bukovina, and Aromanians.

18 km southeast of Landshut, in the district of Landshut is Vilsbiburg (Lower Bavaria)
 The photo on the left is from Geoff Walden's Third Reich Ruins (the ultimate site devoted to Nazi remains then and now) showing Himmler leading a parade through the high street on March 6, 1927 in preparation for the first speech in Bavaria by Hitler after his release from Landsberg after the failed putsch attempt in which he denounced his continued ban on public speaking in Munich. Reporting the next day, the Vilsbiburger Anzeiger stated
It happened as in a large city… Mr. Adolf Hitler spoke forwards about 1000 persons about of Germany future or fall. One must leave it to Mr. Hitler: he spoke essentially, sometimes however for our public somewhat with difficulty.

The same event, with Hitler himself shown fourth from the left. Little appears to have changed since.
About 30 km south of Landshut is the tiny town of Dorfen, its Marienplatz shown here during the Nazi-zeit and today

Flossenbürg (Upper Palatinate)
The sole crematorium oven examined by a US Army officer April 30, 1945 and today.
The execution site in the Flossenbürg concentration camp, seen here after liberation of the camp by US armed forces and today, now a memorial to the resistance.

When the Nazis came to power on the 30th January 1933 the first steps to concentration camps were taken. After the Reichstag was set on fire well prepared sting operations were held to arrest opponents of the Nazi’s and to put them into prison. Such great numbers of people were arrested and taken into prison that the existing prisons were soon overcrowded and alternative places were prisoners could be held needed to be established. On the 21st March 1933 the first concentration camp was set up in an old gunpowder factory in Dachau (Bayern). It developed itself as the prototype of the National Socialistic concentration camp.

In the beginning of 1938 in Flossenbürg, close to the present Czech border, a similar camp was set up. This camp was built by prisoners form Dachau. There were several reasons why Flossenbürg was chosen to house a concentration camp. For example because of the presence of large quantities of granite in this area and the availability of a railroad which one could use for the transport of granite, prisoners, troops and equipment.
In 1934 more than 4.000 people were housed in Flossenbürg. Halfway 1944 a lot of Polish and Hungarian Jews were also taken to Flossenbürg. By the end of 1944 there were 8.000 prisoners housed in the camp whereas the camp was intended in fact for only 5.000 people. A lot of people were executed in the camp, among them some prominent people. On the 9th April 1945 Dietrich Bonhoeffer, Wilhelm Canaris, Ludwig Gehre, Hans Oster, Karl Sack, Theodor Strünck and Friedrich von Rabenau were killed here. In May 1945 the camp was liberated by the Americans. After that it was for a time in use as a hospital for the surviving prisoners.

Soon it was decided that Flossenbürg should be preserved as a monument (Gedenkstätte) and a museum. Today you can find here the cemetery, the Kommandatur, a chapel, guard towers, a monument and an pyramid consisting of the ashes of the prisoners that died in the concentration camp.

Three guard watch towers remain
The “Kommandantur” of concentration camp Flossenbuerg was used by the administration of the camp for registration of the inmates and assignment to work either in the Flossenbuerg quarry, the nearby Messerschmitt factory or one of the several sub camps. All inmates had to pass through the central portal of the Kommandantur and where lead to the prisoner camp lying behind the building.
In 8th of April 1945 Dietrich Bonhoeffer was transferred as one of the last of over 100.000 prisoners to the camp. As a member of the “Bekennende Kirche” and of the wider circle of organizers of the failed plot to kill Hitler on the 20th of July 1944 he was brought to Flossenbuerg together with other members of this circle on personal order of Hitler and Kaltenbrunner. 

After escape attempts or alleged acts of sabotage, inmates were hanged to serve as examples on the roll-call square which was visible from almost everywhere in the camp.
Pastor Bonhoeffer together with Admiral Canaris, Generalmajor Oster, Heeresrichter Dr. Sack and Hauptmann Gehre where sentenced to death on the day of their arrival by Lagerkommandant Kögel in a setup show trial due to “Hoch- und Landesverrat”.

Many Flossenbuerg inmates died of starvation, exhaustion or random violence. Certain ethic, especially jewish people and other groups of inmates became target of planned mass killings by the SS starting 1941.
The victims were led out of sight of the other prisoners but always watched by the watchtowers to a closed section of the camp - called valley of death - where they were killed and their bodies burned. Over 30.000 lost their lives in the Flossenbuerg concentration camp between 1938 and 1945.
In the morning of the 9th of April Bonnhoefer, Canaris, Oster, Dr. Sack and Gehre where murdered one after the other after having to completely undress in front of the detention barracks.
On April 23rd, the US Army reached the Flossenbuerg concentration camp, where they found 1,500 critically ill inmates. The majority of surviving prisoners had departed on death marches. The last death march prisoners were finally liberated by Allied troops on May 8th.
After freeing the camp the US Army ordered all inhabitants of Flossenbuerg to exhume the dead bodies found within the camp and to bury the remains in a newly create cemeteries in the middle of the village of Flossenbuerg. The cemetery still exists in the same place today.
 The 'Square of Nations' memorial to the nationalities of the prisioners that were interned and died in Flossenbürg.

At the entrance, the original gate posts emblazoned with the standard legend 'Arbeit Macht Frei' have been placed.
In Flossenbürg, members of the punishment company were compelled to load heavy stones on their backs at the foot of the slag heap and run around with them in the morass until they finally collapsed. There was also the “moor hole,” a swamp one hundred meters long and forty meters wide in a small hollow; at its deepest point, a grown man could stand with his head barely protruding above the surface. Granite blocks were loaded on the backs of prisoners, and they were then forced to run at double time down the slope. Those who collapsed under the heavy load while still on dry ground were beaten and forced to rush further down into the moor hole. They were supposed to “rest” down there for a while, with the stone slabs supported on their shoulders. If they still had some strength, they survived; if they were too weak, the stones pressed them down into the swampy morass. 

Landsberg am Lech (Upper Bavaria)
The town is noted for its prison where Adolf Hitler was incarcerated in 1924. During this incarceration Hitler wrote/dictated his book Mein Kampf together with Rudolf Hess. His cell, number 7, became part of the Nazi cult and many followers came to visit it during the German Nazi-period. Landsberg am Lech was also known as the town of the Hitler Youth. Following World War II it was the location for one of the largest Displaced Person (DP) camps for Jewish refugees and the place of execution for more than 150 war criminals after 1945. The Landsberg camp began as a Nazi concentration camp. By October 1944, there were more than 5,000 prisoners in the camp.  The camp was liberated on April 27, 1945 by the 12th Armoured Division of the United States Army. Upon orders from General Taylor, the American forces allowed news media to record the atrocities, and ordered local German civilians and guards to reflect upon the dead and bury them bare-handed. After the liberation of the camp it became a displaced person camp. Consisting primarily of Jewish refugees from the Soviet Union and the Baltic states, it developed into one of the most influential DP camps in the Sh'erit ha-Pletah. It housed a Yiddish newspaper (the Yiddishe Zeitung), religious schools, and organisations to promote Jewish religious observance. Tony Bennett was one of the soldiers who liberated the camp.  A dramatisation of the discovery and liberation of the camp was presented in Episode 9: Why We Fight of the Band of Brothers mini-series.  A number of prominent leaders emerged from the camp, including Samuel Gringauz, who also became the chairman of the Council of the Central Committee of Liberated Jews in the U.S. zone. The camp also served as the headquarters for the Jewish education and training organisation ORT.  The camp closed on October 15, 1950.
Shown  in 1938 with a banner with a large swastika hanging from the roof when the structure served as a memorial to Hitler's incarceration, after the war when holding Nazi prisoners and today. Forty miles west of Munich, this is where, in 1924, Hitler spent 264 days incarceration after being convicted of treason after the failed Munich Beer Hall Putsch the previous year. During this time Hitler dictated and then wrote his book Mein Kampf with assistance from his deputy, Rudolf Hess. Hitler had taken the cell that had held Anton Graf von Arco-Valley who had murdered Bavarian prime minister Kurt Eisner in February 1919.

Posed propaganda shot by Heinrich Hoffmann and Hitler's return in 1934 after taking power.
Conditions were not actually so bad in this ‘cross between a spa hotel and a barracks’. Wooden partitions were erected to give the prisoners privacy. They were allowed to mix to such an extent that Hitler dictated Mein Kampf while there, and received visitors freely. Party insignia were hung from the walls and other Nazis stood to attention before dinner when Hitler entered the hall and took his seat. Perhaps helped by the singularly mild rules of the institution, Hitler was regarded by the warders as a model prisoner. Upon Hitler’s release in December 1924, the prison governor said that if anyone could save Germany, it would be this man.
Martyn Housden (57) Hitler: Study of a Revolutionary?

The gaol in 1924 after the release of the putschists and as it appears today.
After his release, Hitler posed outside the town's Bayerntor, built in 1425. He returned to pose in 1934 after taking power. From 1937 to 1945 the prison cell at Landsberg am Lech became the third central site of pilgrimage next to Munich , the "City of the movement" , and Nuremberg , the "City of the Party Rallies." Its slogan during the Third Reich was 'Landsberg - Town of youth' and became known additionally as the meeting place of the Hitler Youth- Following the party rallies of 1937 and 1938 delegations of the Hitler Youth marched across the German Reich as part of the "confessional march of the Hitler Youth" to Landsberg . It would culminate with swastika flags, banners and HJ torchlight rallies at the Landsberger main square and in the atrium of the fortress prison. In the words of Reich Youth Leader Baldur von Schirach, Landsberg was a "pilgrimage of German youth" and the "station of National Socialist education." The gaol with its "Hitler cell" was to be converted into the largest youth hostel largest of the Reich.  The plan also saw the creation of a gigantic parade stadium, which would have had greater dimensions than the entire historic old town. As German troops invaded Poland September 1 1939 , the "Adolf Hitler march " was canceled following the " Party Rally of Peace" . As early as 1933 the city Lech marketed with all its available resources itself as the "Hitlerstadt" or "Stadt des Führers"and "Birthplace of the ideas of National Socialism." This "Hitler tourism" brought economic recovery and by 1938 100,000 tourists visited the 'Hitler cell.'
From 1933 onwards, the city marketed itself using various sobriquets: Hitler City, City of the Führer, National Socialist Site of Pilgrimage and Birthplace of the Ideas of National Socialism. In 1938, 100,000 visitors came to Landsberg, most incorporating a glimpse of Hitler’s former prison cell into their tour. Eventually, the town received the official honorific City of Youth, because it welcomed thousands of Hitler Youth members in 1937 and 1938 for massive Adolf Hitler marches. The delegates also visited the prison – which had plans to become the biggest youth hostel in the Reich – and received a copy of Mein Kampf as a souvenir.
The 'Hitler-Zelle'
Alte Bergstraße hasn't changed much
The Hauptplatz on September 19 1937 during a rally of Hitlerjugend and today 
From the film „Der Marsch zum Führer" showing Hitlerjugend marching to commemorate Hitler's imprisonment in Landsberg am Lech, the final rally in the main square of the city and the address of the Reich Youth Leader Baldur von Schirach. Unlike the earlier Leni Riefenstahl Nuremberg documentaries, it does not focus on the Party congress itself, or on Nazi leaders, who are not shown until the very end of the film. Instead, it follows HJ boys from various parts of Nazi Germany beginning their journey, camping along the route, being taken in by helpful families on the way and marching through cities in formation, saluting and carrying the swastika banner.
 "Schöner Turm" with swastikas 
The  "Schöner Turm" bedecked with swastikas in 1937 and today
as is the statue in front of the rathaus although here covered by the banners of the Hitlerjugend
The Mutterturm seems to have had a fresh coat of paint recently 

Osterhofen( Lower Bavaria)
Hindenburgplatz during the Nazi regime and today
The war memorial 

Pfaffenhofen an der Ilm   (Upper Bavaria)
Adolf-Hitler-Platz then and now

Grafenwöhr (Upper Palatinate)
Around June 25 1938, Hitler attended manoeuvres on the training grounds at Grafenwöhr, close to the Czechoslovakian border, where American paratroopers assigned to Destined Company, 2nd Battalion, 503rd Infantry Regiment, 173rd Infantry Brigade Combat Team (Airborne) took part in a military exercise on February 1, 2014.  
The water tower on Truppenübungsplatz in 1935 and today
The rathaus in the period photo bears the sign "Grafenwöhr grüßt die siegreichen Truppen"- Grafenwöhr greets its richly-honoured troops

 Nördlingen (Swabia)
The town hall and Zur Sonne in 1935 and today
Stairs of the rathaus as depicted in 1927 by the painter Richard B. Adams (now in the stadtmuseum)
Löpsinger Tor
Vers -90, un camp romain avec agglomération (vicus) est attesté. Il disparaît vers 259/260 lors de la conquête du Sud de l'Allemagne actuelle des Alamans. Le nom de cette agglomération était probablement Septemiacum. Ce nom apparaît dans la table de Peutinger (Tabula Peutingeriana). Le Nördlingen romain est peu connu.  Le peuplement alémanique s'est fait aux VIe et VIIe siècles. Nordilinga est mentionné pour la première fois dans un document carolingien de 898.  En 1215, Nördlingen devient une ville impériale libre. En 1219, la foire de la Pentecôte, la plus importante de la Haute Allemagne dure 10 jours.  En 1529, elle fait partie de la minorité protestante à la Diète d'Empire de Spire. Le protestantisme s'y développe.  Pendant la guerre de Trente Ans, Nördlingen est le lieu de deux batailles, en 1634 et 1645. La ville perd la moitié de sa population et son importance économique.  Il faudra attendre 1939 pour que la population retrouve son niveau de 1618. Au 31 décembre 2007, la ville comptait 20 122 habitants.  Occupant une position commerciale importante, la cité a vu entre 1796 et 1800 les engagements victorieux des Français sur les Autrichiens.
The Hotel we stayed in then and now- the Wengers Brettl. In front of the building next to it are these stoplerstein- reminders of the Jewish family who lived next door and later murdered in the Holocaust.
讷德林根(德语:Nördlingen)是德国巴伐利亚州西部的一个市镇,总人口19048人(2011年12月31日),位于一个巨大的撞击坑的中间,也是三十年战争期间讷德林根战役的所在地。今天,这里是仅有的三座完全为城墙环绕的城市之一,另外两座是罗滕堡 (陶伯河)和丁克爾斯比爾。  這個小鎮特別之處是建立在一個1500萬年前直徑1.5公里的隕石坑中,是個獨一無二的隕石坑古鎮。這個隕石坑是地球上現存最大的隕石坑之一,坑洞面積大再加上千萬年的大自然風雨侵蝕和人類的開墾,所以感覺不到走在巨大的隕石坑洞裡。  古罗马城堡的遗址已经在地下发现。1998年,该市庆祝建城1100周年。 
Brettermarkt in 1918 and today 

Hof (Swabia)
The Christuskirche flying the Nazi banner and today...
... where it has recently courted controversy after one of its paintings was identified as showing Hitler beside Christ. Recent cleaning of the painting - first unveiled when the Christus Church in the northern Bavarian city of Hof was consecrated in 1939 - shows an uncanny likeness to the former Fuehrer.   There is the toothbrush moustache, the hair parted on one side and the staring, maniacal eyes which made him a dark Messiah to so many Germans. Evangelical pastor Martin Goelkel, who recently left after eight years at the church some call the 'Nazi Temple,' believes the likeness is just co-incidental but its discovery so long after it was painted is causing a stir among his flock.  'Some people have called this a Nazi place over the years but I don't think this is true,' he said.  'It was designed and inaugurated in a severe time for Germany, no question, but if I interpret the pictures correctly they are now about the glorification of the powerful during this time.  'On the contrary; the individual is made aware that his life belongs to Christ no matter how powerful he feels personally - there is another power over him, a stronger power. This is no Hitler homage, in my eyes. We find people asking something of Christ, there is someone kneeling before him. God resists the proud, but the humble he gives his grace to. Hitler, however, stands imperiously at the side, alone, wearing boots, his robe somehow militaristic. Haughty and arrogant.  'He looks like a rabbit before slaughter. He is a man on the edge, an outsider.'  He claims that in all the years that the church has been open for worship no-one has objected to the Hitler painting near the altar. But now there are rumblings of discontent with some parishioners calling for him to be erased.  'It is not right under any circumstances that the biggest mass killer in history should be featured in a painting in a house of Christian worship,' one of the flock said in a recent interview on Radio Bavaria.  Pastor Goelkel added that he thought the painting should not be removed. 'This image is a central challenge to Nazism: Christ is in the middle. The powerful can stand idle as much as they want,' he said.

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Das Kriegsgefangenen-Mannschafts-Stammlager VII A (kurz: Stalag VII A) war ein Kriegsgefangenenlager der deutschen Wehrmacht, das im Herbst 1939 im Norden der Stadt Moosburg an der Isar (Oberbayern) zwischen Amper und Isar auf halbem Weg zwischen Freising und Landshut an einer Eisenbahnlinie (separate Bahnstation) errichtet wurde. Gegen Ende des Zweiten Weltkriegs waren dort und in seinen Nebenlagern 80.000 Kriegsgefangene vieler Nationalitäten interniert. Es gilt als größtes Kriegsgefangenenlager innerhalb Deutschlands. Ein Dr. Die Überreste von 33 italienischen Soldaten wurden in die Italienische Kriegsgräberstätte im Waldfriedhof nach München umgebettet.  Erst 1982 wurde vor Ort ein Gedenkkreuz errichtet und feierlich geweiht. Dabei waren neben staatlichen Repräsentanten auch Vertreter der französischen Lagergemeinschaft anwesend.