Showing posts with label Moosburg. Show all posts
Showing posts with label Moosburg. Show all posts

More Sites in Upper Bavaria

Moosburg
 Мосбург-ан-дер-Изар (нем. Moosburg an der Isar) — город в Германии, в земле Бавария.  Подчинён административному округу Верхняя Бавария. Входит в состав района Фрайзинг. Население составляет 17 554 человека (на 31 декабря 2010 года). Занимает площадь 43,86 км². Официальный код — 09 1 78 143.
Münchenerstraße during the NSDAP era
Stalag VII
In September 1939, a prisoner of war camp Stalag VII-A was built to accommodate 10,000. The General Command of the Military District VII in Munich chose this site between the Isar and Amper rivers.
The first prisoners arrived on 19 October 1939. They were initially housed temporarily in tents. In the hall of an adjacent fertilizer factory a delousing station was built. From 1940 additional barracks were built and by the summer of 1940, the area of ​​the camp had grown to 350,000 m². Poles and Ukrainians were initially in the camp mainly housed. After the Western Campaign of 1940 French (and soldiers of Polish units in France) were increasingly deported here followed after the attack on the Soviet Union by a large number of Soviet prisoners. By the end of the war, the number of passengers grew to 80,000 at (including 200 generals alone); they were used in surrounding industries, in agriculture and in industry. Tens of thousands of prisoners of war were housed in subcamps and labour detachments around the area. About 2000 German guards of the 512. Landeschützen-Bataillons were stationed in a separate barracks area. Due to the presence of the camp the entire surrounding of bombings spared.

By early 1945, the number of registered prisoners had grown to more than 80,000 - many working in regional industries and farms. It is likely that the presence of this camp close to the town centre spared it from large-scale bombing.  
 On April 29, 1945 the camp was liberated by a unit of the 14th Armoured Division of the United States Army under General Charles H. Karlstad, wherein the ordered transfer of the camp occurred almost without a fight. The site was converted into a detention center for 12,000 German civilians held accountable for their activities during the period of National Socialism- the "Civilian Internment Camp No. 6 ". The camp was released by the Americans in 1948 and served to house German refugees exiled from eastern areas. It became a new part of the town, named Moosburg-Neustadt. Three remaining guard barracks were included in the Bavarian monument list on February 15, 2013.

The entrance to the camp, and the town itself shown in the background
Moosburg Stammlager VIIA, 1945. Pictures from Edward J. Paluch 780 Bomb Squadron. From Fall 1944- Feb 1945 interned in Stalag Luft III. This town about 20km from where I live was the site of Stalag VII A, a POW camp covering an area of 85 acres which also served also as a transit camp through which prisoners, including officers, were processed on their way to another camp. At some time during the war prisoners from every nation fighting against Germany passed through it. By the time it had been liberated on April 29 1945, there were 130,000 prisoners from at least 26 nations on the camp roster. It was thus the largest prisoner of war camp in Germany.
Moosburg an der Isar (eller Moosburg a.d.Isar) er den ældste by i Landkreis Freising Regierungsbezirk Oberbayern i den tyske delstat Bayern. Den ligger 45 km nordøst for München halvejs mellem Freising Landshut i Niederbayern, omkranset af floderne Isar og Amper. Den internationale Flughafen München Franz Josef Strauß er kun 15 km væk og nåes let ad motorvej A92 der passerer byen.  Geografisk er byen præget af de mange bække, floder og kanaler i området. Ud over Amper munder også floderne Sempt, Strogen og Dorfen ud i Isar.
 
Moosburg concentration camp warden from the video game Death to Spies: Moment of Truth, where he wears an armband signifying he's from the 5th ϟϟ Panzer Division Wiking. In the centre is Oberst Hans Nepf, Lagerkommandant 1939-1943, and his succesor Oberst Otto Burger. 
The cemetery of the camp was situated here in the south-western outskirts of Moosburg, an area called Oberreit, among whom 22 or 23 buried were British. From 1946- 1958 the mortal remains moved to central cemeteries before finally being closed in 1958 when 866 bodies were exhumed and reburied at the military cemetery in Schwabstadl near Landsberg. The bodies of 33 Italians were reburied at the Italian Memorial Cemetery near Munich. In 1982 the Moosburg City Council purchased a plot at the site of the old Oberreit cemetery and erected a wooden cross with a simple stone remembering the dead of Stalag VII A.

In the autumn of 2014 on the 75th anniversary of the opening of the camp, this historical marker was relocated at the site, its façade covered by this bronze plaque but steel helmet remaining above.
Today the municipal authorities have seen fit to place a dog association right next to it...
 
...whilst in the town itself this memorial, the Heimatvertriebenen, from 1958 commemorates the Germans' suffering; by 1950 1,931 out of 8,677 Moosburg citizens were refugees fleeing the Soviets. On the right are views down the same road, Sudetenlandstraße, then and now.
 
Today there are still vestiges of the original barracks being used, and along Schlesierstraße
For a site devoted entirely to Moosburg: Moosburg Online
    
Hitlerjugend in 1937 and the site today
Bürgermeister Dr. Müller in front of the memorial on March 10, 1940 and today, the Nazi flags being replaced by the red ensign
 
Moosburg railway station in 1935 and now
 
In 1936 and during the 2016 Herbstshau

My favourite Pub on Herrnstraße, formerly a bakery, and looking the other way towards Herrnstraße 293, the second building on the right, where the Jewish administration was housed after the war from January 1946 to February 1951. 
When the Allied forces conquered Germany, they were able to liberate some tens of thousands of Jewish prisoners. Between 1945 and 1950, however, the former Third Reich became a temporary place of refuge for about 200,000 Shoah survivors. Besides the prisoners freed from the work and death camps, these were people who had fled from the Nazis to Russia, fought in Eastern Europe with the partisans, or in some other way managed to survive underground. Starting in the fall of 1945, the US military government set up special Displaced Persons (DP) camps for them. For a short time, the US General Eisenhower had even considered allowing the Jews to set up their own territory in Bavaria. This plan had been proposed to him by David Ben-Gurion, who was travelling through occupied Germany at that time. However, a Bavarian Jewish state was never established. Nevertheless, the Americans conceded wide-ranging rights of self-determination to the Shoah survivors. The British, Russians, and French granted no such privileges. Supplies, too, were more plentiful in the American zone, and so about 85 percent of all Jewish DPs settled here, considering their residence, however, as but a temporary measure. The overwhelming majority believed that their future would only be guaranteed in a country of their own, convinced that “only Eretz Israel will succeed in absorbing and healing them, help them regain their national and human balance.” As the state of Israel would not be established until 1948, some Jews dreamed also of a new life in the USA, Canada or Australia.

The rathaus then and now

The bridge that was the main strategic objective in the battle between Patton and the German SS in Moosburg. The Germans eventually bombed the bridge in order to keep the American tanks from crossing it. The battle didn't last long, regardless, and the 10,000's of POWs in the prison camp there were soon liberated.
Next to the bridge is the Gasthof zur Länd, shown in 1941, April 29, 1945 with Major-General A.C. Smith of the 14th Armoured Div. of the 3rd U.S. army overseeing the building of the auxiliary bridge over the Isar by the 300th Combat Engineers, and 73 years later.

 
About 30 km south of Landshut is the tiny town of Dorfen, its Marienplatz shown here during the Nazi-zeit and today 

Erding

Landsberg am Lech
Alte Bergstraße hasn't changed much
The town is noted for its prison where Adolf Hitler was incarcerated in 1924. During this incarceration Hitler wrote/dictated his book Mein Kampf together with Rudolf Hess. His cell, number 7, became part of the Nazi cult and many followers came to visit it during the German Nazi-period. Landsberg am Lech was also known as the town of the Hitler Youth. Following World War II it was the location for one of the largest Displaced Person (DP) camps for Jewish refugees and the place of execution for more than 150 war criminals after 1945. The Landsberg camp began as a Nazi concentration camp. By October 1944, there were more than 5,000 prisoners in the camp.  The camp was liberated on April 27, 1945 by the 12th Armoured Division of the United States Army. Upon orders from General Taylor, the American forces allowed news media to record the atrocities, and ordered local German civilians and guards to reflect upon the dead and bury them bare-handed. After the liberation of the camp it became a displaced person camp. Consisting primarily of Jewish refugees from the Soviet Union and the Baltic states, it developed into one of the most influential DP camps in the Sh'erit ha-Pletah. It housed a Yiddish newspaper (the Yiddishe Zeitung), religious schools, and organisations to promote Jewish religious observance. Tony Bennett was one of the soldiers who liberated the camp.  A dramatisation of the discovery and liberation of the camp was presented in Episode 9: Why We Fight of the Band of Brothers mini-series.  A number of prominent leaders emerged from the camp, including Samuel Gringauz, who also became the chairman of the Council of the Central Committee of Liberated Jews in the U.S. zone. The camp also served as the headquarters for the Jewish education and training organisation ORT.  The camp closed on October 15, 1950.
Shown  in 1938 with a banner with a large swastika hanging from the roof when the structure served as a memorial to Hitler's incarceration, after the war when holding Nazi prisoners and today. Forty miles west of Munich, this is where, in 1924, Hitler spent 264 days incarceration after being convicted of treason after the failed Munich Beer Hall Putsch the previous year. During this time Hitler dictated and then wrote his book Mein Kampf with assistance from his deputy, Rudolf Hess. Hitler had taken the cell that had held Anton Graf von Arco-Valley who had murdered Bavarian prime minister Kurt Eisner in February 1919.

Posed propaganda shot by Heinrich Hoffmann and Hitler's return in 1934 after taking power.
Conditions were not actually so bad in this ‘cross between a spa hotel and a barracks’. Wooden partitions were erected to give the prisoners privacy. They were allowed to mix to such an extent that Hitler dictated Mein Kampf while there, and received visitors freely. Party insignia were hung from the walls and other Nazis stood to attention before dinner when Hitler entered the hall and took his seat. Perhaps helped by the singularly mild rules of the institution, Hitler was regarded by the warders as a model prisoner. Upon Hitler’s release in December 1924, the prison governor said that if anyone could save Germany, it would be this man.
Martyn Housden (57) Hitler: Study of a Revolutionary?

The gaol on December 30, 1924 after the release of the putschists and as it appears today. From the left are Gerhard Hoff, Walter Hebel, Hans Eduard Krüger, Julius Schaub and Rudlof Heß. The original caption recorded how the car came courtesy from Landsberger alderman and landowner Franz Strobl who met them upon their release.
   
After his release, Hitler posed outside the town's Bayerntor, built in 1425. He returned to pose in 1934 after taking power. From 1937 to 1945 the prison cell at Landsberg am Lech became the third central site of pilgrimage next to Munich , the "City of the movement" , and Nuremberg , the "City of the Party Rallies." Its slogan during the Third Reich was 'Landsberg - Town of youth' and became known additionally as the meeting place of the Hitler Youth- Following the party rallies of 1937 and 1938 delegations of the Hitler Youth marched across the German Reich as part of the "confessional march of the Hitler Youth" to Landsberg . It would culminate with swastika flags, banners and Hitler Jugend torchlight rallies at the Landsberger main square and in the atrium of the fortress prison. In the words of Reich Youth Leader Baldur von Schirach, Landsberg was a "pilgrimage of German youth" and the "station of National Socialist education." The gaol with its "Hitler cell" was to be converted into the largest youth hostel largest of the Reich.  The plan also saw the creation of a gigantic parade stadium, which would have had greater dimensions than the entire historic old town. As German troops invaded Poland September 1 1939 , the "Adolf Hitler march " was cancelled following the " Party Rally of Peace". As early as 1933 the city Lech marketed with all its available resources itself as the "Hitlerstadt" or "Stadt des Führers"and "Birthplace of the ideas of National Socialism." This "Hitler tourism" brought economic recovery and by 1938 100,000 tourists visited the 'Hitler cell.'
From 1933 onwards, the city marketed itself using various sobriquets: Hitler City, City of the Führer, National Socialist Site of Pilgrimage and Birthplace of the Ideas of National Socialism. In 1938, 100,000 visitors came to Landsberg, most incorporating a glimpse of Hitler’s former prison cell into their tour. Eventually, the town received the official honorific City of Youth, because it welcomed thousands of Hitler Youth members in 1937 and 1938 for massive Adolf Hitler marches. The delegates also visited the prison – which had plans to become the biggest youth hostel in the Reich – and received a copy of Mein Kampf as a souvenir.
 
The 'Hitler-Zelle'
The Hauptplatz on September 19 1937 during a rally of Hitlerjugend and today 
video
From the film „Der Marsch zum Führer" showing Hitlerjugend marching to commemorate Hitler's imprisonment in Landsberg am Lech, the final rally in the main square of the city and the address of the Reich Youth Leader Baldur von Schirach. Unlike the earlier Leni Riefenstahl Nuremberg documentaries, it does not focus on the Party congress itself, or on Nazi leaders, who are not shown until the very end of the film. Instead, it follows HJ boys from various parts of Nazi Germany beginning their journey, camping along the route, being taken in by helpful families on the way and marching through cities in formation, saluting and carrying the swastika banner.
 
The "Schöner Turm" bedecked with swastikas in 1937 and today
 
as is the statue in front of the rathaus although here covered by the banners of the Hitlerjugend
 
The Mutterturm seems to have had a fresh coat of paint recently

Pfaffenhofen an der Ilm 
Adolf-Hitler-Platz then and now, renamed Hauptplatz, with the rathaus on the right
Karl Riemer spent the entire time of its existence, from 1933–1945, in the Dachau concentration camp. He fled from the camp on April 26, 1945. He succeeded in getting through to Pfaffenhofen, some 50 kilometres away and already in American hands, by April 29. The American town commandant there assured him immediate help for the prisoners in the Dachau concentration camp. Karl Riemer was unaware that the order for liberating the camp had already been given on the morning of his arrival.


Ingolstadt (oberbayern)
Adolf-Hitler-Platz then and now.
Adolf-Hitler-Platz seen from both directions, the effects of the war clearly seen
The Bavarian King Ludwig III visiting what is now the Polizeimuseum during the First World War. During the Great War future French president Charles de Gaulle was detained there as a prisoner of war.
  
The portal of the Liebfrauenkirche
Theriesenstrasseseen from the church
The entrance to the new schloss then and now. Nearby at the end Tranktorstrasseis the Hotel Zum Anker where I stayed.
The former Platz der SA is now inaccessible
  
The Kreuztor, the seven-turreted guard tower which, with the Feldkirchnertor, are the only ones of the city's four principal gates that survive today, the latter as part of the castle complex.
The bridge over the Danube before the war and after its destruction by the SS on Thursday, April 26 as the American army reached the north bank of the Danube.

BBC News2012-05-26

Eichstätt
This Hitler Jugend haus, completed in 1938, is still a Youth Hostel.
 
The cathedral in 1936 and today 
Willibaldsbrunnen 
The Willibaldsbrunnen shows a remarkably unchanged marktplatz...
 ... in large part thanks to the town's youth:  "The brave boys instantly got their hoses and connected to the water, and it was a real pleasure to see the Pimpfe and Hitler-Jungen rush to the fire" according to the Eichstätter Heimatzeitung on March 13, 1943. Already in July 1940 the party announced: "7000 Hitler Youth are under the fireman's helmet." The average age was 16 years. The training lasted for six months, and the youth learned to operate all fire equipment, "so that they can collaborate with experienced firefighters at each deployment."

Westenstraße with Saint Walburg church in the background
Willibaldsburg 
The Willibaldsburg and Hofmühle appear to have survived the war unscathed.
Altmühl  
Along the canal looking towards the Altmühl
 
The remains of the Eichstätt Thingstätte, built 1935 

Weilheim
Weilheim
Adolf-Hitler-Platz then and now 




NS-Kreistag at the site on June 16, 1938 showing from the left NS-Kreisleiter Hausböck (Garmisch-Partenkirchen, NS-Kreisleiter Dennerl (Weilheim), Stellv. Gauleiter Nippold and Gauleiter Wagner. 
Otto Hoffmeister Haus  
Otto Hoffmeister Haus, used as a youth hostel during the Third Reich
 

The Vier-Jahreszeiten-Brunnen at the former Adolf-Hitler-Platz and today

1924 Adolf Hitler was serving in Landsberg part of the imprisonment to which he had been sentenced after the failed Hitler Ludendorff Putsch. Here Hitler wrote his programmatic work Mein Kampf. Besides Hitler sat in Landsberg prison a further condemned Nazis like Rudolf Hess. Memorial stone in the concentration camp cemetery in Igling  From 1937 to 1945 Landsberg was at Lech with the prison cell in which Adolf Hitler after his failed coup attempt in 1923 wrote Mein Kampf, alongside Munich, the "city of the movement", and Nuremberg, the "City of the Party Rallies" by the Nazis as a third central place of Nazism is viewed.  Landsberg was in the time of National Socialism under the slogan "Landsberg - City of Youth" known as a meeting point of the Hitler Youth: Following the Reichsparteitage 1937 and 1938 delegations of the Hitler Youth marched from across the German Reich in "Confession march of Hitler Youth" to Landsberg. Before spooky scenery with swastika flags, HJ banners and torch lighting took place the final rallies of the so-called "Adolf Hitler marches" on the Landsberger main square and in the atrium of the fortress prison. In the Hitler cell the Hitler Youth were given the book presents Mein Kampf. Landsberg was the "pilgrimage of German youth" and "Station of the National Socialist education" become as Reich Youth Leader Baldur von Schirach called it. The prison with its "Hitler cell" should be transformed into the largest youth hostel of the kingdom.  The plan was also a huge parade ground, the larger dimensions would have had as the entire historic old town Landsberg. When German troops on 1 September 1939 Poland invaded, the "Adolf Hitler March" has already begun was canceled following the "Party Rally of Peace."  Landsberg got his exposed position in the "Third Reich" is not - often claimed as official representations of the city - "imposed upon from the outside." As early as 1933 the city Lech marketed with all their available means as "Hitler town" or "city of the leader", as "Nazi pilgrimage" and "birthplace of the ideas of National Socialism." The "Hitler tourism" brought economic recovery; In 1938, visited 100,000 "fellow" Landsberg and Hitler cell. Largest concentration camp complex in the German Reich  1944 was built towards the end of World War II to Landsberg and Kaufering with 14 KZ-external commands the largest concentration camp complex of the German Reich. Other large camps had been built in the occupied territories. All KZ commands have been named "Kaufering". They had the status of subsidiary camps of the Dachau concentration camp.  On June 18, 1944, the first transport arrived with 1,000 prisoners from Auschwitz in Kaufering. You should build within the Armament project "wood pigeon" three gigantic semi-underground bunker for the production of the jet fighter Messerschmitt Me 262nd This large bunker along with numerous other buildings, as workers lodging, Officer villas and cellars were in Landsberger Frauenwald, now known as Gewerbepark Frauenwald. For this armament project had thousands of prisoners from the concentration camps Dachau and Auschwitz, which over the railway line Munich-Kaufering directly on a side track (now supply track of the Fa. Klausner Holz Bayern) were placed on the gated communities, their lives cruelly. The bunkers were used by the Americans after the war continued. In addition, numerous outbuildings remained standing for. T. to date still visible in Frauenwald, which is converted more and more to business park by massive and large-scale demolition work on the part of the town of Landsberg am Lech and have in the already settled, well-known companies.  In the external commands registered the Luxembourg concentration camp priest Jules Jost until March 9, 1945 28,838 Jewish concentration camp prisoners. Because of the inhumane housing, due to hunger, cold and diseases such. As typhoid, the labor exploitation to destruction, the prisoners, the 14 concentration camp of Kaufering as "cold crematoria" designated. Until the end of October 1944, who is no longer able to work, sent back to Auschwitz to the gas chambers. From November 1944 handicapped prisoners were not deported from the concentration range Kaufering / Landsberg, but died in the camp, because in Auschwitz gas chambers had already been dismantled. The bodies were buried in the vicinity in mass graves. Shortly before the war, the SS attempted manage sailings (death marches) and mass killings of witnesses KZ-machinery "eliminate" to. Only about 15,000 inmates survived in these camps the last phase of the extermination of Jews and experienced the liberation by the US Army on April 27, 1945th See also: European Holocaust Memorial in Landsberg aftermath  The events in Landsberg am Lech have left many aftereffects. Firstly, the perpetrators punished (see War Crimes Trials), on the other hand is a debate about whether you should pardon the war. There is no compensation mechanism, under which built camp for homeless become survivors (Displaced Persons) and emigration of victims from the region are carried out and prepared. Also near Landsberg am Lech is the former POW camp of the US Army.  Some "places of worship" of neo-Nazism (for example, the "fortress") are in Landsberg am Lech. A "Schlageter-stone" is still today as a monument in the Deer Park in Pössinger Au in the Lechauen.
Click here for More Nazi sites in Bavaria
Das Kriegsgefangenen-Mannschafts-Stammlager VII A (kurz: Stalag VII A) war ein Kriegsgefangenenlager der deutschen Wehrmacht, das im Herbst 1939 im Norden der Stadt Moosburg an der Isar (Oberbayern) zwischen Amper und Isar auf halbem Weg zwischen Freising und Landshut an einer Eisenbahnlinie (separate Bahnstation) errichtet wurde. Gegen Ende des Zweiten Weltkriegs waren dort und in seinen Nebenlagern 80.000 Kriegsgefangene vieler Nationalitäten interniert. Es gilt als größtes Kriegsgefangenenlager innerhalb Deutschlands. Ein Dr. Die Überreste von 33 italienischen Soldaten wurden in die Italienische Kriegsgräberstätte im Waldfriedhof nach München umgebettet.  Erst 1982 wurde vor Ort ein Gedenkkreuz errichtet und feierlich geweiht. Dabei waren neben staatlichen Repräsentanten auch Vertreter der französischen Lagergemeinschaft anwesend.