Showing posts with label Hitler's Bunker. Show all posts
Showing posts with label Hitler's Bunker. Show all posts

Site of Hitler's Bunker and New Reich Chancellery


Separate from the entry for Wilhelmstrasse 
The setting in which Hitler played out the last scene of all was well suited to the end of so strange a history. The Chancellery air raid shelter, in which the events of 22 April had taken place, was buried fifty feet beneath the ground, and built in two storeys covered with a massive canopy of reinforced concrete. The lower of the storeys formed the Fuhrerbunker. It was divided into eighteen small rooms grouped on either side of a central passageway. Half of this passage was closed by a partition and used for the daily conferences. A suite of six rooms was set aside for Hitler and Eva Braun. Eva had a bed-sitting-room, a bathroom, and a dressing-room; Hitler a bedroom and a study, the sole decoration in which was the portrait of Frederick the Great. A map-room used for small conferences, a telephone exchange, a power-house, and guard rooms took up most of the rest of the space, but there were two rooms for Goebbels (formerly occupied by Morell) and two for Stumpfegger, Brandt's successor as Hitler's surgeon. Frau Goebbels, who insisted on remaining with her husband, together with her six children, occupied four rooms on the floor above, where the kitchen, servants' quarters and dining-hall were also to be found. Other shelters had been built nearby. One housed Bormann, his staff and the various Service officers; another Mohnke, the S.S. commandant of the Chancellery, and his staff.
The physical atmosphere of the bunker was oppressive, but this was nothing compared to the pressure of the psychological atmosphere. The incessant air-raids, the knowledge that the Russians were now in the city, nervous exhaustion, fear, and despair produced a tension bordering on hysteria, which was heightened by proximity to a man whose changes of mood were not only unpredictable but affected the lives of all those in the shelter.
Hitler had been living in the bunker for some time. Such sleep as he got in the last month appears to have been between eight and eleven o'clock in the morning. As soon as the mid-morning air attacks began, Hitler got up and dressed. He had a horror of being caught either lying down or undressed.  Bullock (784-5)
Hitler: A Study in Tyranny
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Location of the bunker through Google earth and video showing brief overview of the site
Map of the Reichchancellery with site of Führerbunker coloured in red.
1. Mittelbau mit Marmorgalerie 2. Eingang zur Reichskanzlei 3. Eingang zur Präsidialkanzlei 4.Kasernenbauten 5. Hebebühne zu den Katakomben 6. Gartenportal zu Hitlers Arbeitszimmer
7.Bauzufahrt zum Führerbunker 8. Zufahrt – Tiefgarage und Führerbunker
9. Einfahrt – Tiefgarage und Feuerwehr 10. Zufahrt Führerbunker
11. Haus Kempka 12. Gewächshaus 13. Ehrenhof 14. Festsaal mit Wintergarten 15. Alte Reichskanzlei
16. Speisesaal 17. Propagandaministerium 18. Erweiterungsbau zur Reichskanzlei
19. U Bahn Eingang Wilhelmplatz 20. Kaufhaus Wertheim 21. Leipziger Platz 22. Ministergärten
23. Tiergarten 24. Hermann Göring Strasse 25. Voss Strasse 26. Wilhelmstrasse
Schematic diagram of the Führerbunker. There were actually two bunkers that were connected together: the older Vorbunker and the newer Führerbunker. The latter was located over eight metres beneath the garden of the old Reich Chancellery building at Wilhelmstraße 77, about 120 metres north of the new Chancellery building, which had the address Voßstraße 6. The Vorbunker was located beneath the large hall behind the old Chancellery, which was connected to the new Chancellery. The Führerbunker was located somewhat lower than the Vorbunker and south-west of it. The two bunkers were connected via sets of stairs set at right angles.
Vorbunker
1. Keller des Wintergartens 2. Keller des Festsaales 3. Kannenberggang 4. Aufenthaltsräume
5. Waschraum/ Duschen 6. Toiletten 7. Anrichtraum/ Küche 8. Wache 9. Maschinenraum
10.Alte Wache 11. Haupteingang 12. Notausgang 13. Warteraum 14. Sekretärin
15. Aufenthaltsraum – Wache 16. Treppenhaus zwischen Bunker und Führerwohnung
17. Gasschleuse 18. Aufenthaltsraum 19. Speiseraum
Hauptbunker
20. Betonverfüllung 21. erster Notausgang des Hauptbunkers 22. Abwasser/ Strom
23. Badezimmer 24. Privates Gästezimmer Adolf Hitlers 25. Vorraum Adolf Hitlers
26. Arbeitszimmer Adolf Hitlers 27. Schlafraum Adolf Hitlers 28. Kartenzimmer/ Lageraum
29. Warteraum/ Lagevorraum 30. Flur und Wartebereich 31. Fernschreiber/ Telefon
32. Sanitätsraum 33. Raum – Prof. Morell 34. Schlafraum 35. Personal
36. zweiter Notausgang des Hauptbunkers 37. Beobachtungsturm (im Bau) 38. Belüftungsturm (im Bau)
39. Lüftungsturm für Generator (im Bau) 40. Bunkerwände 41. Haus Kempka 42. Bunkerzufahrt
43. Pergola 44. Auswärtiges Amt 45. Führerwohnung 46. Lastenaufzug 47. Fundamente/ Alte Reichskanzlei

Vorbunker under the Reichskanzlei reception hall
My students at the site of Hitler's bunker near where his body was burned during our school trip in 2011. The sign you see was erected on June 8, 2006. One of Hitler's bodyguards, Rochus Misch, apparently one of the last people living who was in the bunker at the time of Hitler's suicide, was on hand for the ceremony. There is a children's playground now on the spot where Hitler's and Braun's bodies were burnt, immediately behind the bunker entrance. The ruins of both the old and new Chancellery buildings were levelled by the Soviets between 1945 and 1949 but the bunker largely survived, although some areas were partially flooded. In 1947 the Soviets tried to blow up the bunker but only the separation walls were damaged. In 1959 the East German government also tried to blast the bunker, apparently without much effect. Since it was near the Berlin Wall, the site was undeveloped and neglected until after reunification. During the construction of residential housing and other buildings on the site in 1988–89 several underground sections of the old bunker were uncovered by work crews and were for the most part destroyed. In May '95, the regional parliament of Berlin decided to lock up the remnants of the bunker and build houses for representatives from the Bundesländer on top of it, rejecting a proposal to retain it as a monument. The entrance and parts of the bunker have been destroyed, mostly by the Russians right after the end of the war, but there should be quite a bit left from the actual Führerbunker, which had been 15 metres underground and protected by metres of concrete.
The sofa on which Hitler and his wife committed suicide, with Americans examining the scene, the blood noticeable. According to the June 18, 1946 report of Clonel Osipov, this sofa
is stuffed, made out of pine and was covered with a white cloth, with drawings of clear and dark brown flowers. The cover is torn and it maintained itself only on the left side in contact with the wall, between Hitler's study and bedroom. ( ..... ) From the detailed examination of the sofa: on the superior face of the right arm are visible for a length of 28.5 centimetres numerous dark- brown and red-brown splashes and some brown tending to black stains. ( ....) There are also numerous spots of grey colour and of various forms noticeable, owing to the diffusion of fungous moulds. On the internal face of the arm are well visible for a length of 36 centimetres dry stripes of pale reddish-brown colour that run for almost its entire thickness. (.... ) The spot and the splashes on the sofa and the stripes on the walls have been noticed and examined for verifying their haematic content.

Re-enaction of the disposal of Hitler and Braun's bodies for the Soviet film Osvobozhdenie beside a photograph of site where Hitler and Braun's bodies were cremated from Victory in Europe: From D- day to V-E Day by Max Hastings. The final photo shows LIFE war correspondent Percy Knauth (left) sifting through dirt and debris in the shallow trench in the garden of the Reich Chancellery where the bodies of Hitler and Eva Braun are believed to have been burned after their suicides.

The garden entrance to Hitler's bunker in 1946 when the bunker was flooded, perhaps to prevent exploration underground, and as depicted in another re-enacting of the disposal of Hitler's body from Der Untergang
The same entrance on the right. The depression in the ground is where Hitler's body was supposedly cremated.

The site in 1988 before the construction work. That year it was decided to build a new great quarter in the historical area and to clean out from it all the rests of the second world war, including the Vorbunker and the Führerbunker. According to Pietro Guido, "the whole area was flattened, great excavations started for the foundations of the buildings and to discover the rests of the two bunkers and relative tunnels of connection." By June, the two bunkers were already unearthed and rose in their massive structures. The demolition of the bunkers had to happen without witnesses and the area was put under the police control. Once destroyed and covered in earth, the two bunkers had to dissolve from from the memory of Berliners and amateur historians. No information was provided to visitors; instead the ground had to be equipped with parking lots, flower-beds and playing-fields, new trees and pedestrian paths.
The bunker unearthed in 1988, from Pietro Guido's Führerbunker
The same position in summer of 2007 and 2011 with footage of the site
Photograph purporting to show Hitler's remains and the site where his body was cremated today
Stalin had been informed by Zhukov that Hitler had committed suicide on 30 April. His body and that of his new wife Eva Braun had been dug up in the garden, in the spot designated by Admiral Voss. As the Smersh soldiers were not certain that they had the right bodies, they reburied them, only finally exhuming them on 5 May, when together with the bodies of the Goebbels children, the chief of staff General Krebs and a couple of dogs, they were sent to their HQ at Berlin-Buch as important trophies. The autopsies were performed the next day. Contradictory evidence made the officers concerned reluctant to send in a final report on the cause of Hitler’s death. The Soviet authorities preferred the version that had him taking poison – a cowardly way out. Shooting oneself was a braver, more soldierly death.
When the Soviets’ Operation Myth was launched in 1946 to establish the real sequence of events leading to Hitler’s death, some of Hitler’s personal staff were brought back to Berlin and the bunker, in order to point out the precise details of the suicide and subsequent burning in the garden. The bones, for the time being, were stored in Magdeburg. Of particular importance were the objects in Hitler’s personal collection. For them an aircraft was laid on as Stalin wanted his bones examined by his foremost experts. The Führer’s skull was eventually put into a paper bag and deposited in the State Archives.
Giles MacDonogh (385) After the Reich
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Footage of Hitler's last public appearance during the battle of Berlin on his birthday outside the bunker (commentary in English and Greek subtitles)

Hitler and his entourage emerged from the bunker for what would be his last moments above ground, breathing the fresh air of the country which his war was now subjecting to utter ruin and destruction. In the garden of the Reichschancellery, the Fuhrer reviewed the troops of the ϟϟ Frundsberg Division and a group of Hitler Youth. The beaming leader of the Hitlerjugend, Artur Axmann, presented the unit and singled out some of those present as having 'recently distinguished themselves at the front'. Those boy-soldiers were decorated by Hitler, and all received a handshake from Germany's 'saviour'. Though his speech was full of wooden optimism about the Soviets' imminent 'greatest defeat yet', he was clearly physically debilitated. 'Everyone was shocked at the Führer's appearance,' Axmann later remembered. 'He walked with a stoop. His hands trembled. But it was surprising how much will power and determination still radiated from this man.' Newsclips filmed by the Nazi authorities in fact reveal a man who appeared to be on the verge of collapse.
That afternoon, in the ruined Reich Chancellery garden, the Fiihrer worked his way slowly down a line of Hitler Youth, some of whom had received the Iron Cross for attacking Soviet tanks. Hitler could not present any medals himself. To prevent his left arm shaking too obviously, he walked gripping it behind his back with his right hand. For brief moments, he could afford to release it. With what looked like the intensity of the repressed paedophile, he lingered to cup a cheek and tweak an ear, unconscious of his leering smile.
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The same scene recreated for the film "Der Untergang" (The Downfall). This scene concerns twelve year old Peter Kranz during the Battle of Berlin in April 1945 who then receives an iron cross from Hitler for taking out two Soviet tanks.

Outside Churchill's own 'bunker' in London with Churchill seeing the ruins of Hitler's for himself on July 16 1945 just before the Potsdam conference...
...and sitting in a damaged chair taken out from Hitler's bunker
Hitler's wax figure in a mock-up of the bunker at Madame Tussaud’s museum in Berlin.

Photographs by William Vandivert for Life:


Two of the twenty or so pages of notes that Vandivert typed up for LIFE's editors back in New York, describing not only the pictures that were taken on each roll of film, but also the mood and the atmosphere pervading his experience of examining Hitler's bunker and the Reich Chancellery grounds. (An example of Vandivert's terse, vivid notations: "... view of chancellery palace ... This is completely bombed, burned, and shelled to hell.")

A new view of a photograph that appeared, heavily cropped, in LIFE of Hitler's command centre in the bunker, partially burned by retreating German troops beside a photo almost too-perfectly symbolic of Berlin in the last weeks of April, 1945 -- features a crushed globe and a bust of Hitler lying amid rubble and debris outside the Reich Chancellery building. Of the last image, Vandivert's notes simply stated: "mouldy ϟϟ cap lying in water on floor of sitting room."
This first image not only captures the chaotic state of Hitler's bunker when Vandivert made his way there in 1945, but also features an item that recalls the wanton gangsterism and greed that characterized Nazi rule: a 16th-century painting looted from a museum in Milan. The last two show that the Russians themselves left little intact or unmolested, with the final photo showing Russian soldiers and an unidentified civilian struggling to move a large bronze Nazi Party eagle which once loomed over a doorway of the Reich Chancellery in Berlin. "They are loading this on to a truck," Vandivert typed in his notes, "to be carried away as a trophy."
Remains of the interior
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East German colour video from circa 1988: STASI (East German Intelligence) cameramen enter the Führerbunker for the first (and the last) time since it was closed in 1945. This was filmed just before East German army men blew out the entrances to the place with high explosive to allow the building of a parking lot for nearby condominiums upon it.
Photos of the interior as well as murals from the so-called 'Fahrerbunker' apparently the property of Harry von Gebhardt can be found here.


Skull thought to be Hitler's is from woman


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A piece of skull with a bullet hole through it that Russians claimed was Hitler's actually came from a woman, scientists at the University of Connecticut concluded. The cranium fragment is part of a collection of Hitler artefacts preserved by Soviet intelligence in the months after Hitler and Eva Braun reportedly committed suicide. The collection, now in the Russian State Archive in Moscow, also includes bloodstained pieces of the sofa where Hitler reportedly shot himself after taking a cyanide pill. The artefacts were put on public display in 2000. Nick Bellantoni said his initial forensic exam of the skull fragment showed it didn't match what he knew of Hitler's biology: "The bone was very small and thin, and normally male bones are much more robust in our species. I thought it probably came from a woman or a younger man." Bellantoni then took several pinhead-size pieces of the skull fragment and swabs of the blood stains back to the university for analysis.
Linda Strausbaugh, a professor of molecular and cell biology, determined that the DNA came from a 20- to 40-year-old woman. The skull fragment could have come from Braun, but to know that, the lab would need samples of her DNA. Also, the DNA samples were very degraded, making identification unlikely. Witnesses never reported Braun being shot in the head, Bellantoni said, and she is thought to have died of cyanide poisoning. "This person, with a bullet hole coming out the back of the head, would have been shot in the face, in the mouth or underneath the chin," he said. "It would have been hard for them to miss that."
DNA from the bloodstain swabs showed at least some of it came from a man, Strausbaugh said. "The DNA is relatively degraded and we don't have a full range of markers that we'd like to have," she said. "My gut feeling is he did commit suicide there, and maybe the blood sample we found is his," Bellantoni said.
"What this does is it raises a question: If this is not him who is it?" he later added. "And, two, what really happened there?

No doubts about the remains of Goebbels...

On the evening of 1 May, after giving poison to his children, Goebbels shot his wife and himself in the Chancellery Garden. The bodies were set fire to by Goebbels's adjutant, but the job was badly done, and the charred remains were found next day by the Russians. After Goebbels's death the Fiihrerbunker was set on fire.
The Russians found the splinters of a poison phial in the right side of Dr Goebbels’ jaw. Magda too had swallowed poison. Like Hitler, he had probably also shot himself. Schwägermann certainly heard one shot—others heard two; on Schwägermann’s orders Ochs fired two coups de grace into the motionless bodies. The S.S. officers made only cursory attempts to burn the remains. A Walther pistol was found near them a few days later when the Russians tipped the two corpses onto a red and gold door ripped out of the chancellery building. The corpses were loaded onto a truck and driven away. There was one feature about the little doctor, even in death, that caught the Soviet pathologist’s attention. His fists were raised, as though spoiling for a fight. Perhaps, somewhere, for Dr Joseph Goebbels the dialectical battle was already beginning anew.
Irving (934) Goebbels: Mastermind of the Third Reich
Hitler and Goebbels sharing a meal in the bunker with re-enactment of the Goebbels' suicide from Der Untergang.

Site of Hitler's Chancellery 

In 1938,  Hitler assigned Albert Speer to build the New Reich Chancellery, to be completed that year, stating that Bismarck's Old Chancellery was "fit for a soap company," not as headquarters of a Greater German Reich. Hitler demanded grand halls and salons which "will make an impression on people" and gave Speer a blank cheque - the cost of the project was immaterial - and over 4,000 workers toiled in shifts, so the work could be accomplished round-the-clock. The immense construction was "finished" 48 hours ahead of schedule, and earned Speer a reputation as a good organiser, which, with Hitler's fondness for Speer, led him to become Armaments Minister and director of forced labour during the war. Interior fittings dragged on well into the war, and in the end it cost over 90 Million Reichsmarks, (well over one billion US dollars today), and hosted the ministries of the Reich.  
Postcard from just after the war, and from our 2011 school trip


Erich Merker's 1940 painting of the building of the Reichschancellery and the actual construction drawing from two years earlier.
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Films about the Reich Chancellery
Front and back cover with some images below
Schematic plans of the New Reichschancellery






The view from the subway station into Vossstrasse. On the right, the Borsig Palace with the Reichskanzlei behind it. The photo on the right from 1946 is looking down Wilhelmstrasse towards the corner of Vosstrasse from Hitler's balcony on the Reichskanzlei. The right shows the entrance to the courtyard.
 The same view today, taken summer 2007.
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German newsreels showing crowds greeting Hitler in the entrance to the courtyard of the Old Reich Chancellery on his 50th birthday on April 20th, 1939 and, on the right, crowds saluting Hitler on the Chancellery balcony after his triumphant return by train from France, July 6, 1940. Reichsmarschall Hermann Göring stands beside him.
The main entrance to one of the wings of the Reich Chancellery building. The building was heavily damaged during World War II with the remnants being destroyed not long after the war.
Left: The garden courtyard with the cafeteria visible on the right.
Right:The interior of the dining hall.
 The main entrance to the Reichschancellery by night.
Left: The arched hallway running in front of the dining hall.
Right: A small courtyard inside the chancellery.
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Rare footage of German Foreign Minister Joachim von Ribbentrop formally receiving Soviet Foreign Minister V. M. Molotov at the train station on November 12, 1940 where they are then driven to the New Reich Chancellery to meet with Hitler. This meeting served to solidify in Hitler's mind the need to attack the Soviet Union.
Virtual Tour of Hitler's Headquarters
The pictures below are based on over 800 photographs and documents from public and private archives in Berlin displaying a perfectly accurate rendering of much of the architecture, along with some interiors, of the Third Reich. Over 2 million objects -- including fallen tree branches in the courtyards, swastika-bedecked chairs in the dining room, books, pipes, papers -- and 600 buildings are presented with stunning visual clarity. The creator, Christoph Neubauer, used the original architectural plans and compared them with photographs made by the East German secret police, the Stasi, in the 1970s. Meticulously overlaying the various plans and studying the corresponding photographs enabled Neubauer to create a digital 3D image of how the bunker would have looked although he "had to guess on the colours." Most previous presentations of Hitler's lair, Neubauer says, seem "frighteningly superficial." The proportions are wrong, the ceiling height is off, the doors and airlocks falsely positioned. In the film "Downfall," the Führer and his henchmen are seen to be living in a dank, dark cavern with concrete walls, water seeping through the floors and surrounded by poor lighting, an image widely believed "not because it is true, but because that is how Germans want to continue to imagine Hitler's end. I understand the need to do that, but it's not how things looked."
The Reich Cabinet Meeting Room: The Reich cabinet meeting room was renovated between 1875-1878 by Wilhelm Neumann on behalf of Bismarck and looked as seen here until its destruction in 1944. The only novelty was the 1934-1935 implement refurbishment by Paul Ludwig Troost.
Left: The Exit Of The Vorbunker: The exit of the Vorbunker was located opposite the elevator. It is likely that this exit was used as a second entrance to the Vorbunker. While the residents of the Old Reich Chancellery used the main entrance to the Vorbunker, at the same time the residents of northern extension could enter the Vorbunker through the air lock of this bunker exit. Centre: The Engine Room: The technical heart of the Vorbunker. The generator was able to provide power for the bunker even during a power failure. Left in the picture shown are the 4 air filters of the bunker filter system. Only after filtering the air through these filters, it was then possible to distribute the air through the ventilation openings into the rooms of the bunker. Right: Reception Hall and Vorbunker / Cut: The air raid shelter and the reception hall were designed to form a static symbiosis. The shelter, with its thick concrete ceiling, formed a solid foundation for the marble columns in the reception hall. These columns reached 50 cm downward through the air cushion beneath the reception hall floor, resting directly on the bunker ceiling. The placement of the pillars was also determined by the layout of the shelter. Each pillar was placed squarely on top of an intersection between two bunker walls. The extra pressure bearing down on these intersections added strength and stability to the air raid shelter.
Left: The Basement Of The Reception Hall: The basement rooms were connected by passages on the eastern and western sides of the shelter. These could be used as escape routes, should it become necessary to evacuate the bunker in an emergency. The rooms and passages that surrounded the shelter also had another function. They created a space between the exterior walls of the building, and the bunker itself. This offered additional protection, as bombs which hit the construction from the side would explode in this space, before reaching the air raid shelter itself. Centre: The Staircase To The Basement Of The Reception Hall: East of the winter garden was the staircase, which linked the basement of the reception hall directly to the “Fuehrer's Apartment”. The entire northern part of the Old Reich Chancellery was called “Fuehrer's Apartment”, including the dining room and the winter garden. Directly opposite the staircase was the main entrance to the Vorbunker. Right: The Emergency Exit Of The Vorbunker: In the western area of the basement, one can recognise the air cushion of the reception hall above. On the right is the western outer wall of the bunker recognisable on which stood the western pillars of the reception hall. The garden façade of the reception hall rested on the basement wall to the left. This picture shows the emergency exit of Vorbunker fenced by a railing. This exit was only used as an emergency and it remained closed at all times.
Last photographs of Hitler alive as he inspects the damage made to the Chancellery. Beside him stands his personal adjutant Julius Schaub. The photograph was taken by the same photographer who took the one of Hitler inspecting the Hitlerjugend in the Reichschancellery garden on April 20, 1945.
 
The latter photo re-enacted to form basis of promotional poster for Der Untergang 

The ruins of the Reich Chancellery where Hitler's and Eva Braun's bodies were cremated.
 Recreation of Speer surveying the remains of his work and final battle outside the chancellery in Der Untergang 
 July 9, 1941 and July 12, 1946
The Reich Chancellery was almost bare. Paintings, tapestries and furniture had been removed. There were huge cracks in the ceilings, smashed windows were boarded up and plywood partitions concealed the worst of the bomb damage. (94)
[On Hitler's last birthday] Goring, Ribbentrop, Donitz, Himmler, Kaltenbrunner, Speer, Keitel, Jodl and Krebs were driven to the Reich Chancellery before noon. There, they trooped through the huge rooms faced in polished marble, with doors almost to the ceiling. This quasi-cinematic monument to conspicuous power now looked tawdry in its half-wrecked state, yet it remained deeply sinister. (301)

The red granite flooring was being removed by the soviets to built their war memorial in Treptower Park.
The site immediately after the war and the same view summer, 2007- a row of flats.

The entrance courtyard and main entrance to Hitler's Reich's Chancellery. The building was meant to intimidate foreign guests with the entrance flanked by Arno Breker’s two monumental figures he had titled Torch Bearer and Sword Bearer. As the denazification officials noted after the war in the artist's favour, the sculptures were renamed by Hitler after their submission, becoming known as The Party and Wehrmacht, respectively, thereby giving them a political meaning that the artist had not intended. In any event, Alfred Rosenberg thought that his “monumental figures [were] a representation of the ‘force and willpower’ of the age.” Robert Scholz thought they "stood at the beginning of a new politically determined epoch, because it could embody most immediately the intended rejuvenation of the world. . . . Arno Breker’s sculptural works are symbols of the dignity and creative drive that is at the basis of the political idea of National Socialism.” In addition to the heroic statues for the New Reich Chancellery, forty-two of his works appeared in the eight Great German Art Exhibitions (GDK) held annually in Munich, where the regime exhibited officially sanctioned art.
 His works, according to a later critic, “glorified the racial struggle, they were symbolic stone piles of Aryan beliefs.” They were “a beatification of ‘militarism’ and ‘racial soundness’ based on the struggle against and even liquidation of all things not beautiful.” Another scholar noted, “While it was the function of cartoonists to circulate a negative picture of ‘inferior’ races, the art of Breker and Thorak provided, perfected and emphasized a positive image of a Nordic super-race within a scheme of classicizing representation. Stürmer-caricature and Breker sculpture cannot be separated from one another. They were both equally and simultaneously promoted because they endorsed and illustrated racist policy.” Jost Hermand took this idea to its conclusion, observing, “National Socialist art is thus not unproblematically ‘beautiful,’ not merely devoted to perfect forms and empty content; it is also eminently brutal, an art based on convictions which, when realized, literally left corpses in their wake.”
Petropoulos (225) The Faustian Bargain
 The two statues, with me standing beside  Sword Bearer now in a different location
Fritz Todt's funeral in February, 1942

Before and after the war
More images of the destruction from Saveliæi Vasil§evich ëIìAmshchikov's book Vozvratu Ne Podlezhit!: Trofei Vtoroi Mirovoi

Mohrenstrasse Underground station


Mohrenstrasse underground station with the Reichschancellery in the background during the war and in the summer of 2007, looking towards the opposite direction with an attempt to Photoshop the site with me today and at the turn of the century.
The original station designed by Alfred Grenander opened on 1 October 1908 on the new branch from Potsdamer Platz to Spittelmarkt. It was then called Kaiserhof after a nearby grand hotel on the Wilhelmplatz square. It was rebuilt in the course of the 1936 Summer Olympics and severely damaged in World War II.
When East Berlin fell under communist administration after the Second World War, the Wilhelmplatz square as well as the station were renamed on 18 August 1950 to Thälmannplatz, after the communist leader Ernst Thälmann. With the erection of the Berlin Wall from 13 August 1961, the line ceased to run between East and West Berlin and the station became the terminus of the line in East Berlin. As in the 1980s the square was overbuilt by a housing estate and the Czechoslovak embassy, the station on 15 April 1986 was renamed Otto-Grotewohl-Straße, the name of the Wilhelmstraße at that time, after the politician Otto Grotewohl. On 3 October 1991, following German reunification, the station was renamed Mohrenstraße. The line was reconnected on 13 November 1993 and simultaneously reconfigured, forming a new U2 line between Vinetastraße in the east and Ruhleben in the west.

The red marble inside comes directly from the Mosaics Hall in the Reich Chancellery courtesy of the Red Army
Now, after the destruction caused by the Anglo-American air-raids, the cannon shots of the Russians and the subsequent demolition and removal of the rest during the immediate post-war years, only the marble used for restructuring the subway station "Mohrenstrasse" remain as a witness to pretensions of the Chancellery. These residual plates of marble, together with the few lamp-posts still working not far away, are the only remains of the vision dreamt, projected and realised by Albert Speer, together with his patron Adolf Hitler.   
рейхсканцелярия Фюрербункер Καταφύγιο του Χίτλερ 総統地下壕 제1차 세계 대전 제2차 세계 대전 홀로코스트 뉘른베르크 전범 재판 하인리히 히믈러 나치 신나치주의 신비주의 히틀러 암살 미수 사건 독일 에바 브라운 겔리 라우발 브론 location of hitler's bunker    “body man”K元首地堡(德语:Führerbunker)殺。5月2日,蘇聯軍隊佔領此處。 大眾文化      電影帝國毀滅即是以此地為主要場景。 al Penn Фюрербункер (Führerbunker (инф.)) — наименование комплекса подземных помещений в Берлине, размещённых под рейхсканцелярией. Этот бункер служил последним убежищем Адольфа Гитлера в течение последних недель существования национал-социалистического режима в Германии. Бункер был штаб-квартирой фюрера, в которой он и ещё ряд нацистских руководителей (включая Геббельса) покончили с войны  Бункер был расположен к северо-востоку от рейхсканцелярии. Пять метров под землей (четыре метра железобетона и метр грунта), тридцать комнат (помещений различного назначения — от конференц-зала до туалета и венткамер), расположенных на двух уровнях с выходами в главное здание и аварийный выход в сад. Бункер имел общую площадь около 250 квадратных метров. Был построен в два этапа (1936 и 1943 годы). Впервые Гитлер посетил Фюрербункер 25 ноября 1944 года. 16 января 1945 года Адольф Гитлер окончательно перебрался в Фюрербункер, но до 15 марта 1945 периодически покидал его, однако 15 марта 1945 с приближением советских войск перестал покидать его окончательно.  Выход из бункера в сквер внутреннего двора Рейхсканцелярии, место сожжения трупа Гитлера После Второй мировой войны  Здание Рейхсканцелярии было снесено, входы в бункер взорваны и засыпаны грунтом. На месте запасного выхода сейчас автостоянка. Взорванный в 1947 г. бункер Бывший сквер Рейхсканцелярии в наше время (2009 г.) См. также      «Бункер» — фильм 1981 года с Энтони Хопкинсом в главной роли.     «Бункер» — фильм 2004 года с Бруно Ганцем в главной роли.     Вервольф (бункер)     Волчье логово     Герда Кристиан     Рейхсканцелярия     Рохус Миш     Траудль Юнге  Литература      Pietro Guido: Führerbunker-Discovered its Mysteries ISEM [Vierte Ausgabe, 2006]総統地下壕(独: De-Führerbunker.ogg Führerbunker[ヘルプ/ファイル])は、ドイツ・ベルリンにあった総統官邸の地下壕を指す。総統官邸の地下壕は二つのエリアに区切られているが、ここではその二つを扱う。  目次      1 概要     2 総統大本営として関連項目  概要  1935年、総統アドルフ・ヒトラーは総統官邸の中庭に地下壕を設置させた。当時は主要施設に地下壕を設けるのは特別なことではなかった。1943年には、戦況の悪化を受けて、防御機能を高めた新たな総統地下壕が建造された。二つの地下壕は階段で接続されており、新造部分は「Führerbunker」(総統地下壕)と呼ばれ、旧造部分は「Vorbunker」(旧地下壕)と呼ばれた。  地下壕は攻撃にも耐えられるよう厚さ4mものコンクリートによって造られ、約30の部屋に仕切られていた。構造は強固で、空襲やソ連軍によるベルリンへの激しい攻撃にも耐え抜いた。しかし急ごしらえで建造されたため各所で水漏れが起きており、ヒトラー自身が換気を嫌ったため空調は良好ではなく、決して完璧なつくりとはいえなかった。また、初期こそヒトラーが嫌っていた喫煙は硬く禁じられ、利用者もそれを守っていたが戦況が絶望的になるにつれヒトラーの姿がない所では堂々とタバコを吸うようになってゆき、末期にはヒトラーが目の前を通り過ぎてもタバコを吸うようになった。  大戦末期の1945年1月16日からヒトラーはここでの生活をはじめた。ヒトラーとエヴァ・ブラウン、ヨーゼフ・ゲッベルスらが総統地下壕に居住し、ゲッベルスの家族やマルティン・ボルマン等他の者は旧地下壕に居住した。ヒトラーはベルリン市街戦末期の1945年4月30日にここで自殺した。翌日には後継首相のゲッベルスも自決し、5月2日にはソ連軍に占領された。 総統大本営として  地下壕は総統大本営としての役割を果たしており、国防軍最高司令部や陸軍総司令部・空軍総司令部といったドイツ軍中枢に関わる人物がここで勤務していた。ヒトラーが関係者以外の立ち入りを禁じたためにエヴァ・ブラウンら部外者は空襲時に避難する以外は地下壕に立ち入らなかった。  しかしソ連軍がベルリンに迫った4月15日、エヴァは家具を地下壕に運び入れさせ、ヒトラーの側で生活することを決めた。ヒトラーや軍需相シュペーアが避難を勧告したが、エヴァは応じなかった。 総統誕生日   4月20日、ヒトラーは56歳の誕生日を地下壕で迎えた。ヒトラーの誕生日を祝うために空軍総司令官ヘルマン・ゲーリング、海軍総司令官カール・デーニッツ、国防軍最高司令部総長ヴィルヘルム・カイテル、外相ヨアヒム・フォン・リッベントロップといった政軍の高官が集まった。同日午前、ベルリン市内に対するソ連軍の砲撃が始まり、いよいよベルリンが戦場となることは明白であった。  ヒトラーに祝意を表明した後、ゲーリングとカイテルは国防軍最高司令部と陸軍総司令部・空軍総司令部の大部分の機能をベルリンから避難させる許可を求めた。ヒトラーは許可を与え、ゲーリングらの同行も認めた。さらに北部ドイツの軍指揮権をデーニッツに委ねた。この時点では南部ドイツの指揮権については言明せず、ナチス党官房長マルティン・ボルマンをはじめとして、ヒトラーがやがて南部に避難すると見る者も存在した。しかし翌21日未明にベルリンを離れない意志を言明し、オーバーザルツベルクに「狼はベルリンにとどまる」という電文が打電された。狼はヒトラー個人を指す暗号である(アドルフは「高貴な狼」という意味であり、またヒトラーはしばしば「狼」という意味のヴォルフという偽名を使用していたため)。しかしゲーリング、デーニッツら軍高官は決定に従い、ベルリンを離れることになった。 ベルリンの孤立  4月22日午後3時、総統地下壕で作戦会議が開かれた。しかしベルリン防衛の不活発さに激怒したヒトラーは自殺をほのめかし、その意志はボルマンを始めとする幹部にも伝えられ、壕内の人々にも伝わった。カイテルとヨードル作戦部長、ボルマンが説得したためヒトラーの精神は落ち着きを見せたが、カイテルらの避難勧告には応じなかった。同日午後8時45分、総統副官のプットカマー海軍少将・シャウブ親衛隊大将、ヒトラーの主治医モレル、女性秘書のヴォルフ(en:Johanna Wolf)、シュレーダー(en:Christa Schroeder)などの職員が地下壕から退去し、オーバーザルツベルクのヒトラー山荘ベルクホーフに避難した。しかしエヴァや秘書のユンゲらはヒトラーの勧告にもかかわらず、退去に応じなかった。一方、午後8時にはゲッベルスの夫人マグダとその6人の子が地下壕に入り生活するようになった。  4月23日、ヨードルから「ヒトラーの自殺意志」を聴いたコラー空軍参謀総長が地下壕を脱出し、オーバーザルツベルクのゲーリングの元に向かった。これを受けたゲーリングは連合軍との降伏交渉を始めるべく、ヒトラーに総統権限委譲を確認する電文を送る。しかしヒトラーは激怒し、ゲーリングの逮捕と監禁を命じた。この日のうちにリッベントロップはドイツ北部に疎開し、翌4月24日未明にはシュペーアが地下壕から退去した。このころの地下壕の様子をシュペーアは「英雄気取りのゲッベルス、疲れ切ったヒトラー、権力闘争に燃えるボルマン、異常な多数者の中で、エヴァだけが冷静であった」と回顧している。同日、ベルリンの北、ラインスベルク近郊ノイルーフェン基地にカイテルやヨードル、国防軍総司令部と陸軍総司令部の人員が集まった。ヒトラーの許可を得て陸軍総司令部の統帥任務は解除され、国防軍総司令部が陸軍総司令部を吸収してベルリン防衛の指揮を取ることになった。  4月25日正午頃、遂にベルリン市はソ連軍によって完全に包囲された。 最期への日々  4月26日、グライム空軍上級大将が女性飛行士ハンナ・ライチュの操縦する飛行機に乗ってベルリン市に入った。ソ連軍の対空砲火を切り抜け、砲撃で破壊された滑走路を使っての着陸であり、地下壕の人々は大いに沸き立った。グライムは即日元帥に昇格し、ゲーリングの後任の空軍総司令官に任命された。  4月27日、エヴァ・ブラウンの妹グレートルの夫であり、親衛隊全国指導者連絡官のフェーゲライン親衛隊中将が国外逃亡を図ったとして逮捕された。28日には親衛隊全国指導者ヒムラーが単独で和平交渉を行っていることが発覚した。フェーゲラインは処刑され、ヒムラーは解任された。  4月29日午前0時頃、新空軍司令官グライムとライチュがヒトラーの指示でベルリンを脱出した。この時、地下壕にいた者達がライチュに手紙を託している。その後、ヒトラーは秘書ユンゲを呼び、政治的遺言の口述を行い、自らの死後の閣僚を指名した。新大統領にデーニッツ、首相にゲッベルス、ナチス党担当大臣にボルマンが指名されている。(ヒトラー内閣#参考:ヒトラーの遺書による内閣)その後個人的遺言を残し、エヴァとの結婚、自殺後の遺体処理方法、遺産の管理を明らかにした。  遺言書の口述が終わった午前3時頃、ヒトラーとエヴァは結婚式を挙げた。ゲッベルスとボルマンが立会人と介添えを行い、ベルリン大管区監督官ワグナー(en:Walter Wagner (notary))によって結婚登録が行われた。その後、小会議室で簡単な披露宴が行われた。午前4時、秘書ユンゲはヒトラーに清書した遺言書を見せ、ヒトラーやボルマンらのサインを受けた。ゲッベルスは遺言書に補遺として自らがベルリンで死ぬことを書き記した。  4月29日午前8時、ヒトラーは遺言書をデーニッツ、中央軍集団司令官シェルナー、そしてナチス党発祥の地であるミュンヘンに届けるよう使者を送り出した。このほか幾人かの総統副官に脱出許可を与えた。  午後3時、ヒトラーはムッソリーニ処刑の報道を知った。午後6時、ゲッベルスの子供らも招いた「ベルリン市民とのお別れ」パーティが行われた。午後10時には作戦会議が行われ、ベルリン防衛司令官ヴァイトリング中将から戦闘は4月30日夜までしか継続できないという連絡が入った。午後11時、総統副官ベロー(de:Nicolaus von Below)大佐がヒトラーのカイテルあて書簡を持って地下壕を脱出した。ただし、ベローは危険を感じて書簡を破棄したため正確な内容は伝わっていない。 終焉  4月30日午前2時、地下壕に残った女性秘書たちのためのパーティが行われた。このパーティの最中、ヒトラーは内科主治医であるハーゼ親衛隊中佐に自殺方法について相談している。ハーゼは青酸カリと拳銃を併用する自殺方法を提案した。すでにヒトラーは主治医シュトゥンプフエッガー親衛隊中佐から自殺用の青酸カリのカプセルを受け取っていたが、ヒトラーは青酸カリの効力に疑問を抱いていた。そこでヒトラーの愛犬であるブロンディが実験台となり、青酸カリで薬殺された。  正午、ヒトラーはボルマンとギュンシェ親衛隊少佐に、午後3時に自殺することを伝え、遺体を焼却することと、地下壕は爆破せずそのまま残すことを命令した。午後1時、ヒトラーはユンゲとクリスティアン、栄養士のマンツィアリ(de:Constanze Manziarly)を同席させて最後の食事を取った。  午後3時、総統地下壕の廊下に側近が整列し、ヒトラー夫妻との最後の別れを行った。全員無言であり、ただ握手を交わすのみであったという。ヒトラーとエヴァはヒトラーの居間に入り、リンゲ親衛隊少佐が扉の鍵を閉めた。午後3時40分、ゲッベルスらが居間に入るとソファの手前でエヴァ、奥にヒトラーが死んでいた。主治医シュトゥンプフエッガー親衛隊少将がヒトラー夫妻の検死を行い、死亡を確認した。  午後4時、総統官邸中庭に掘られた穴にヒトラー夫妻の遺体が置かれ、ガソリン180リットルを注いだ上でボルマンが点火を行って遺体は焼却された。ヒトラーがいなくなると地下壕には虚脱感が広まり、今までヒトラーに遠慮していた喫煙者はおおっぴらにタバコを吸い始めた。午後6時、ボルマンは新大統領に指名されたデーニッツに連絡を取り、大統領就任を伝えた。  5月1日、地下壕から参謀総長代理クレープス中将が脱出し、ソ連軍第8親衛軍司令官チュイコフ上級大将に停戦の申し入れを行った。クレープスはベルリン防衛軍の無条件降伏を条件とする一時停戦で合意したが、降伏を認めない首相ゲッベルスは拒否した。午後3時15分、ゲッベルスはデーニッツにヒトラーの死、そしてデーニッツによるヒトラーの死の公表を委任する電報を送った。午後5時頃、ゲッベルスの6人の子供達が青酸カリで毒殺された。午後6時半、ゲッベルスは最後の閣議を行い午後8時半にゲッベルスと夫人マグダは拳銃で自殺した。  ベルリン防衛軍司令官ヴァイトリング大将はソ連軍に降伏を申し入れ、その交渉の間に地下壕の人々は脱出することになった。クレープスと総統副官ブルクドルフ大将、ヘーグル中佐は地下壕で自決したが、残った地下壕の人々は10組に分かれて脱出した。  5月2日、ベルリン防衛軍は正式に降伏し、地下壕はソ連軍に占領された。 総統地下壕見取り図 総統地下壕ヒトラー居住エリアの見取 ヒトラーの寝室     ヒトラーの居間  戦後 総統地下壕跡の案内板  戦後ソ連や旧東ドイツ政府によって取り壊そうと試みられたが、あまりにも強固だったため完全に撤去することはできなかった。1990年代の大規模宅地開発の際にも掘り起こされたが、埋め戻されてしまっている。  ネオナチの聖地になる懸念から長年場所は非公開だったが、2006年6月8日に跡地に案内板が設置された。現在の跡地には駐車場などが存在する[1]。 Рейхсканцелярия (нем. Reichskanzlei) — традиционное название ведомства рейхсканцлера Германии с 1871 по 1945 год. Рейхсканцелярия располагалась в Берлине на Вильгельмштрассе 77, в бывшем дворце князя Антона Радзивилла. Имперская канцелярия обосновалась в этом здании в 1871 году по настоянию Бисмарка. Это учреждение прежде всего отвечало за связь рейхсканцлера с империей и государственным аппаратом.  В 1928—1930 годах была сооружена пристройка к зданию (спроектирована архитекторами Зидлером и Кишем).  В 1932—1933 годах дворец рейхсканцлера служил также временной служебной квартирой президента Германии Гинденбурга в связи с тем, что в это время квартира Гинденбурга во дворце президента Германии ремонтировалась.  В 1934—1935 годах в здании проведена реконструкция, созданы новые жилые и служебные помещения для Адольфа Гитлера. Новая рейхсканцелярия Здание новой рейхсканцелярии в 1939 году.  В 1938 году Гитлер поручил своему фавориту — архитектору Альберту Шпееру спроектировать здание новой рейхсканцелярии. По замыслу Гитлера, постройка должна была отражать господство национал-социализма и поражать своими размерами (длина 441 м). Благодаря организационному таланту Шпеера и практически безграничным возможностям, предоставленным ему Гитлером, строительство нового здания рейхсканцелярии заняло очень мало времени. Примерно через год оно было полностью готово.  В 1943 году в саду рейхсканцелярии был сооружён подземный бункер для Гитлера, так называемый Фюрербункер. Экслибрис библиотеки рейхсканцелярии  Во время Второй мировой войны помещения рейхсканцелярии использовались для проведения заседаний штаба. Здесь же размещались и личные апартаменты Гитлера площадью более 400 квадратных метров. Но по первоначальному назначению новое здание рейхсканцелярии уже не использовалось.  В апреле-мае 1945 года, во время битвы за Берлин, новое здание рейхсканцелярии было сильно повреждено. После окончания войны руины рейхсканцелярии были полностью уничтожены по приказу советского командования. Части мраморных стен здания были использованы при строительстве мемориала в Трептов-парке, для ремонта повреждённой во время войны станции берлинского U-Bahn «Моренштрассе» и на станциях Московского метрополитена. 1871年至1945年的德國總理府。直譯為帝國總理府 (德语:Reichskanzlei) 又譯為柏林總理官邸。作為德國帝國時期、威瑪共和及納粹時期的總理辦公處所。 1939年於旁側所建立的新總理府。   目录      1 舊總理府     2 新總理府     3 參見     4 參考     5 延伸閱讀     6 文件     7 外部連結  舊總理府  1869年普魯士邦政府已收購位於柏林威廉大街77號的洛可可式安東尼·拉齊維烏(Antoni Radziwiłł)王子宮殿,即前舒倫堡宮(Palais Schulenburg)。從1875年官方進行翻修工程使其成為總理府。1878年7月柏林會議及1884年剛果會議的舉辦地點。  在威瑪時期,總理府被已現代風格建築擴建,於1930年完工。當1932年至1933年,在同條大街73號的總統府整修時,也被拿來當作興登堡總統的住所,在1933年1月30日任命希特勒為總理。希特勒內閣在府邸舉辦了多次會議。1935年時,建築師保羅·特魯斯特(Paul Troost)及李昂哈特·高爾(Leonhard Gall)重新設計內部裝飾以作為希特勒的住所,增加溫室及防彈的地窖,從1936年持續擴建,並起名為元首地堡。 在二戰期間因空襲及柏林戰役而毀損,但其殘跡至1950年尚未清除。   1939年時位於沃斯大街的新總理府。 新總理府  1938年7月下旬,希特勒正式指定建築師阿爾貝特·斯佩爾建立一新總理府於沃斯大街的一側到與威廉大街的交叉口,並要求一年內完成。希特勒評論俾斯麥啟用的舊總理府只適合肥皂公司,不適合作為大德意志國的總部。儘管如此,其仍為正式住所,當時也正在進行翻修,供希特勒所住的私人樓層也被稱作元首寓所(Führer apartment)。新舊總理府共同擁有一個大中庭,在其底下即為元首地堡,希特勒從1945年至其自殺時居住於該處。斯佩爾在其自傳中說明其新總理府的總設過程,包含清理、設計、建立、裝設,費時不足一年。但事實上,在1935年就完成初步規劃和設計工作。另外用來建設新府邸預定地的沃斯大街2號也遲至1937年就清理完畢。 15:舊總理府 1:新總理府 10:元首地堡。  希特勒指定沃斯大街的北側,並要求斯佩爾建立「使民眾印象深刻」的高大外牆及大廳。希特勒並未限定建設花費的開支。要求在明年的一月前完成以期新總理府舉辦外交接待會。超過四千名工人輪班,以二十四小時日以繼夜。該巨大建設較預定已提早48小時,該計畫使斯佩爾獲得好組織者的名聲,並受到希特勒的喜愛,在之後被任命裝備與軍火部長及戰時義務勞動負責人。建設成本最後超過九千萬馬克,超過今日的10億美元。 新總理府的走廊。  新總理府在柏林戰役受損嚴重,在戰後被蘇軍摧毀。而其西半部則位於柏林圍牆的「死亡地帶」,在1980年代才有公寓建築及幼兒園。 參見      元首地堡     納粹建築     世界之都日耳曼尼亞 総統官邸(そうとうかんてい、独: Reichskanzlei、英: Reich Chancellery)は、ナチス・ドイツの総統、アドルフ・ヒトラーの官邸。ドイツ帝国以降のドイツ国首相が首相官邸として使用した建物であり、帝国官房とも訳されることもある。ベルリンの中央省庁の建ち並ぶヴィルヘルム街 (Wilhelmstraße) に設けられていた。  現在総統官邸といわれるものは、ヴィルヘルム街77番地にあった旧ドイツ首相官邸、78番地にあった官邸の拡張部分、ヴィルヘルム街と直角に交わるフォス街に延びていた新総統官邸(フォス街1-19番地)の三つの建物の総称である。  ヴィルヘルム街沿いには外務省、法務省、財務省、国民啓蒙・宣伝省、航空省(現在は連邦政府の財務省)等、ドイツ国政府の中央官庁があった。さらに南に下ればゲシュタポ本部 (de:Prinz Albrecht Straße) もある。  目次      1 歴史         1.1 首相官邸         1.2 総統官邸         1.3 新官邸         1.4 終焉     2 記録     3 総統官邸の警備     4 新総統官邸の画像     5 文献     6 その他の総統官邸     7 関連項目     8 外部リンク  歴史 ヴィルヘルム街77番地のドイツ首相官邸 1895年頃 首相官邸  起源は1878年に初代統一ドイツの首相ビスマルクがヴィルヘルム街77番地の建物をドイツ国首相宮殿(Reichskanzlerpalais) として使用したことに遡る。ビスマルクは後に名称を Reichskanzlerpalais から Reichskanzlei(首相官邸) へと変更している。1930年には首相官邸は南隣りのヴィルヘルム街78番地まで拡張された。 総統官邸  1934年8月にヒンデンブルク大統領が死去すると、ヒトラーはヒンデンブルクの偉業を記念するためとして大統領職を空席にし、首相職(政府首班)と国家元首を兼務し、自らの肩書きを「指導者及びドイツ国首相」(Führer und Reichskanzler) と定めた。国民には従来通りに「指導者」(de:Der Führer)と呼ぶように要請した。この肩書きは日本では一般に総統として知られており、日本では「Reichskanzlei」 の訳語として「総統官邸」もしくは「首相官邸」が用いられる。  1935年、ヒトラーは官邸を改造、二階に居住用に私室を設け、外務省に隣接する庭園に国賓等の接遇のために200名収容可能なレセプション・ホールを新築させ、同時に地下に総統地下壕を設けさせた。当時はドイツでは防空法なる法律があり、新築の際に防空壕を設置することは特別なことではなかった。また、1930年の増築部分である78番地の建物は特に彼は気に入らなかった。「まるで百貨店、あるいは消防署のような無味乾燥なファサードである」と酷評していた。  1938年には官邸前に総統の姿を見たいと集まる市民に答えるためにお気に入りの建築家 アルベルト・シュペーア(後の軍需大臣)に命じてバルコニー (Führerbalkon) を作らせた。 いわゆる総統官邸とはヴィルヘルム街77番地の建物、78番地の建物、ヴィルヘルム街と直角に交わるフォス街に延びる新総統官邸(フォス街1-19番地)の三つの建物の複合体を指す。 新官邸 新総統官邸  1939年にはシュペーアが設計した新館が完成した。これは78番地の既存の総統官邸に連続してヴィルヘルム街と直角に交わるフォス街沿いにヘルマン・ゲーリング街(現ゲルトルート・コルマー街)まで西方向に400m以上も延びる細長い新古典様式の建物である。この建物は旧官邸と区別して新総統官邸 (de:Neue Reichskanzlei) と呼ばれる。  新官邸に設けられた主なものは総統の執務室(広さ:400平米)、閣僚会議室、食堂、ナチス党官房長(de:Chef der Parteikanzlei)マルティン・ボルマン 、総統官邸官房長( de:Chef der Reichskanzlei)ハンス・ハインリヒ・ラマース 、大統領府官房長(de:Chef der Präsidialkanzlei)オットー・マイスナー の執務室等である。地下には車庫や防空室が設けられた。ヒトラーは1939年1月12日に新年祝賀式をここで行い、各国大使、外交官、政府高官、党要人にお披露目をした。 終焉 崩壊した総統官邸。車の後部座席中央の人物はポツダム会談のためにベルリンを訪れたトルーマン。1945年7月15日 トレプトウ公園に建つソビエト連邦戦没者顕彰碑(Sowjetisches Ehrenmal) 総統官邸の赤い大理石が流用されている  第二次世界大戦が始まると、ヒトラーは前線に近い総統大本営に居住することが多くなり、官邸が使用される頻度は減少した。連合軍によるベルリン空襲が始まると、総統官邸も被害を受けている。  1945年1月15日以降はヒトラーは首相官邸に居住し、ソ連軍のベルリン攻撃が始まると総統地下壕に籠もるようになった。1945年4月30日、ヒトラーは総統地下壕で自殺した。5月1日には後継首相に指名されたヨーゼフ・ゲッベルスも自殺し、この建物を使用した最後の首相となった。彼らの遺体は総統官邸の中庭で焼却されている。5月2日にはソ連軍に占領され、総統官邸としての役目を終えた。  戦後、総統官邸はソ連軍により解体、撤去された。建物に使用されていた大理石の一部は、トレプトウ公園(en:Treptower Park)内のソビエト連邦戦没者顕彰碑(ドイツ語版)の一部に使われたほか、地下鉄モーレン街駅(ドイツ語版)の部材にも使用され、現在も見ることができる。撤去された総統官邸の跡地には高層住宅が立ち並んでいる。近年、地下防空室の一部が破壊されず発見され話題を呼んだ。 記録  1939年5月にはチェコスロバキア大統領エミール・ハーハを官邸に呼びつけ、モラビア・ボヘミアの割譲を要求した。1942年6月9日には暗殺された保護領チェコスロバキアの副総督ラインハルト・ハイドリヒの葬儀が「モザイクの広間」で行われるなどの、歴史の舞台ともなった。  日本人の記録では、1941年に訪独した松岡洋右外相がバルコニーで手を振る姿が記録として残されている。新官邸のお披露目の際には駐独日本大使大島浩が招待された。1942年4月20日には在留日本人が総統官邸の参観に招待された。この時に「栄誉の中庭」を進む在留邦人の写真は佐貫亦男の著書「追憶のドイツ」に残されている。 総統官邸の警備  新総統官邸の完成に伴い衛兵配置も下記のように変更された(一部抜粋)。      第1SS装甲師団 ライプシュタンダーテ・SS・アドルフ・ヒトラーの衛兵部隊         ヴィルヘルム街に面した新総統官邸の主玄関に儀仗兵 (Ehrenposten) 2名         車寄せのある「栄誉の中庭」の中玄関に儀仗兵2名         屋内の総統の執務室前に儀仗兵2名         フォス街に面した三つの主玄関のうちに主玄関(西側)に儀仗兵2名     陸軍衛兵連隊ベルリン (Wachregiment Berlin)         78番地の官邸に儀仗兵2名         フォス街にある大統領府への主玄関(東側)に儀仗兵2名         フォス街に面して主玄関(中央)に儀仗兵4名     ベルリン警察         77番地の官邸(総統居住区)1名         78番地の官邸に2名         ヴィルヘルム街とフォス街の角に1名     RSD (Reichssicherheitsdienst)         77番地の官邸(総統居住区)7名         階段に1名         玄関ホールに1名         エレベーターに1名     突撃隊連隊「フェルトヘレンハレ」(SA-Standarte "Feldherrenhalle")         フォス街に2名  新総統官邸の画像      新総統官邸の3Dモデル      フォス街とヘルマン・ゲーリンク街の角(1939年)      主玄関      主玄関      中庭      中庭の玄関(1940年)      庭側の正面      庭側の正面(1941年)      大理石のギャラリー      大レセプションホール      執務室      閣僚会議室      総統地下壕の3Dモデル      総統官邸にあった青銅の鷲。イギリス戦争博物館所蔵  文献      エレーナ・ルジェフスカヤ(ソ連軍の通訳)『ヒトラーの最期』小林  Seven years ago I was talking to a longtime Democratic operative on Capitol Hill about a politician who was in trouble. The pol was likely finished, he said. I was surprised. Can’t he change things and dig himself out? No. “People do what they know how to do.” Politicians don’t have a vast repertoire. When they get in a jam they just do what they’ve always done, even if it’s not working anymore.  This came to mind when contemplating President Obama. After a devastating election, he is presenting himself as if he won. The people were not saying no to his policies, he explained, they would in fact like it if Republicans do what he tells them.  You don’t begin a new relationship with a threat, but that is what he gave Congress: Get me an immigration bill I like or I’ll change U.S. immigration law on my own.  Mr. Obama is doing what he knows how to do – stare them down and face them off. But his circumstances have changed. He used to be a conquering hero, now he’s not. On the other hand he used to have to worry about public support. Now, with no more elections before him, he has the special power of the man who doesn’t care.  I have never seen a president in exactly the position Mr. Obama is, which is essentially alone. He’s got no one with him now. The Republicans don’t like him, for reasons both usual and particular: They have had no good experiences with him. The Democrats don’t like him, for their own reasons plus the election loss. Before his post-election lunch with congressional leaders, he told the press that he will judiciously consider any legislation, whoever sends it to him, Republicans or Democrats. His words implied that in this he was less partisan and more public-spirited than the hacks arrayed around him. It is for these grace notes that he is loved. No one at the table looked at him with colder, beadier eyes than outgoing Senate Majority Leader Harry Reid , who clearly doesn’t like him at all. The press doesn’t especially like the president; in conversation they evince no residual warmth. This week at the Beijing summit there was no sign the leaders of the world had any particular regard for him. They can read election returns. They respect power and see it leaking out of him. If Mr. Obama had won the election they would have faked respect and affection.  Vladimir Putin delivered the unkindest cut, patting Mr. Obama’s shoulder reassuringly. Normally that’s Mr. Obama’s move, putting his hand on your back or shoulder as if to bestow gracious encouragement, needy little shrimp that you are. It’s a dominance move. He’s been doing it six years. This time it was Mr. Putin doing it to him. The president didn’t like it.  From Reuters: “‘It’s beautiful, isn’t it?’ Putin was overheard saying in English in Obama’s general direction, referring to the ornate conference room. ‘Yes,’ Obama replied, coldly, according to journalists who witnessed the scene.”  The last time we saw a president so alone it was Richard Nixon, at the end of his presidency, when the Democrats had turned on him, the press hated him, and the Republicans were fleeing. It was Sen. Barry Goldwater, the GOP’s standard-bearer in 1964, and House Minority Leader John Rhodes, also of Arizona, who went to the White House to tell Nixon his support in Congress had collapsed, they would vote to impeach. Years later Goldwater called Nixon “The world’s biggest liar.”  But Nixon had one advantage Obama does not: the high regard of the world’s leaders, who found his downfall tragic (such ruin over such a trifling matter) and befuddling (he didn’t keep political prisoners chained up in dungeons, as they did. Why such a fuss?).  Nixon’s isolation didn’t end well.  Last Sunday Mr. Obama, in an interview with CBS ’s Bob Schieffer, spoke of his motivation, how he’s always for the little guy. “I love just being with the American people. …You know how passionate I am about trying to help them.” He said what is important is “a guy who’s lost his job or lost his home or …is trying to send a kid to college.” When he talks like that, as he does a lot, you get the impression his romantic vision of himself is Tom Joad in the movie version of “The Grapes of Wrath.” “I’ll be all around …wherever there’s a fight so hungry people can eat, I’ll be there.”  I mentioned last week that the president has taken to filibustering, to long, rambling answers in planned sit-down settings – no questions on the fly walking from here to there, as other presidents have always faced. The press generally allows him to ramble on, rarely fighting back as they did with Nixon. But I have noticed Mr. Obama uses a lot of words as padding. He always has, but now he does it more. There’s a sense of indirection and obfuscation. You can say, “I love you,” or you can say, “You know, feelings will develop, that happens among humans and it’s good it happens, and I have always said, and I said it again just last week, that you are a good friend, I care about you, and it’s fair to say in terms of emotional responses that mine has escalated or increased somewhat, and ‘love’ would not be a wholly inappropriate word to use to describe where I’m coming from.”  When politicians do this they’re trying to mush words up so nothing breaks through. They’re leaving you dazed and trying to make it harder for you to understand what’s truly being said.  It is possible the president is responding to changed circumstances with a certain rigidity because no one ever stood in his way before. Most of his adult life has been a smooth glide. He had family challenges and an unusual childhood, but as an adult and a professional he never faced fierce, concentrated resistance. He was always magic. Life never came in and gave it to him hard on the jaw. So he really doesn’t know how to get up from the mat. He doesn’t know how to struggle to his feet and regain his balance. He only knows how to throw punches. But you can’t punch from the mat.  He only knows how to do what he’s doing.  In the meantime he is killing his party. Gallup this week found that the Republicans for the first time in three years beat the Democrats on favorability, and also that respondents would rather have Congress lead the White House than the White House lead Congress.  A few weeks ago a conservative intellectual asked me: “How are we going to get through the next two years?” It was a rhetorical question; he was just sharing his anxiety. We have a president who actually can’t work with Congress, operating in a capital in which he is resented and disliked and a world increasingly unimpressed by him, and so increasingly predatory.  Anyway, for those who are young and not sure if what they are seeing is wholly unusual: Yes, it is wholly unusual.一郎訳、合同出版、1965年     コーネリウス・ライアン(戦記作家)『ヒトラー最期の戦闘』木村忠雄訳、朝日新聞社、1967年     ゲハルト・ボルト(グデーリアン参謀総長の副官)『ヒトラーの最期の十日間』松谷健二訳、TBS出版会、1974年     福島克之『ヒトラーのいちばん長かった日』光人社、1972年     Helga Pitz / Wolfgang Hofmann / Jürgen Tomisch Berlin-W. Geschichite und Schicksal einer Stadtmitte, Siedler Verlag, 1984, ISBN 3-88680-098-9     After the Battle(戦時中に連合軍の作成した主要政府機関の所在地図)2002     Andrea Steingart 『ベルリン:<記憶の場所>を巡る旅』昭和堂、2006年、ISBN 4-8122-0601-4  在留邦人の記憶      笹本駿二(朝日新聞特派員)『第二次世界大戦下のヨーロッパ』岩波書店、1970年     衣奈多喜男(朝日新聞特派員)『敗北のヨーロッパ特電』朝日ソノラマ、1973年     新関欽哉(外交官)『ベルリン最期の日』日本放送出版協会、ISBN 4-14-001548-9、1988年     藤山楢一(外交官)『一青年外交官の太平洋戦争』新潮社、ISBN 4-10-373101-X、1989年     佐貫亦男(日本楽器駐在員)『追憶のドイツ:ナチス・空襲・日本人技師』酣燈社、ISBN 4-87357-018-2、1991年     邦正美(留学生)『ベルリン戦争』朝日新聞社、ISBN 4-02-259573-6、1993年  その他の総統官邸  ナチス党発祥の地であるミュンヘンにも総統官邸は置かれた。ケーニヒ広場に面したナチス党本部である褐色館(de:Braunes Haus)の隣に置かれ、地下でつながっていた。現在はミュンヘン音楽・演劇大学の校舎となっている。