Showing posts with label Eilenburg. Show all posts
Showing posts with label Eilenburg. Show all posts

Remaining Nazi Sites in Saxony

Annaberg
In 1945 the two towns Annaberg and Buchholz merged into the new town Annaberg-Buchholz. 
AnnabergAnnaberg
Adolf-Hitler-Strasse in 1942, now Grosse Kirchgasse and from the other direction.
At the beginning of the National Socialist regime, an early concentration camp was established in the Schützenhaus, the later Gaststätte Erzgebirgischer Hof, in which hundreds of members of workers' organisations and other opponents of the Nazi regime were interned and abused. In the context of the November pogrom in 1938, the remaining sixteen Jews of the city, which until 1935/36 used the prayer room at 17 Buchholzer Straße, were expelled or deported to the extermination camps. The Jewish cemetery was destroyed and buried in 1940. In Annaberg the destruction in the Second World War was limited. Buchholz, on the other hand, was heavily hit during a Valentine's Day bomb attack on February 14, 1945. Instead of a planned attack on nearby Chemnitz, several bombers waved to the south because of too high clouds, the towns of Annaberg and Buchholz were illuminated. It is assumed that during the overflight over the Pöhlberg the bombs were released too late, so that the city Annaberg was spared this night by demolitions. In Buchholz, on the other hand, numerous houses were destroyed or severely damaged. The church of St. Catherine was also struck, vaults and pillars collapsed, only the enclosing walls were preserved and not rebuilt until 1975.
Kreisführerschule Rauschenbachmühle  
The former Kreisführerschule Rauschenbachmühle then, in the service of the Nazi regime, and now, a nature centre.


Königsbrück
Adolf-Hitler-Platz in 1939 and the market today in front of the rathaus and looking the other way, still with the Schwarzer Adler.
 Königsbrück in der Oberlausitz, Adolf Hitler Platz, Geschäft, Inh. Gustav Richter, Geschäf

Struppen  
Schloss Struppen, formerly used as an SA Führerschule Schloss Struppen, formerly used as an SA Führerschule. The town itself has a number of memorials referencing the Nazi era- one dating from 1948 on the main street commemorates victims of fascism. Another in the cemetery serves as a memorial to five concentration camp prisoners and PoWs from different countries. The memorial plaques at Hauptstraße 32 as well as on the Rittergut honour communist Martin Hering (murdered in 1933 in the Hohnstein concentration camp) and Artur Tiermann (shot in a forest near Altenberg in 1935). Hering had been the political leader of the local communist group in Struppen and one of the 72 Communists, Social Democrats and anti-fascists arrested on March 9, 1933 by SA commanders of the SA leadership stationed here. He escaped in the end of May, forming an illegal resistance group in Struppen from still-active remaining communists and partisans. Hering was re-arrested on November 4, 1933 and brought to Hohnstein, dying on November 22 through torture after refusing to reveal the whereabouts of his comrades and lure his own son across the border to the police.
 
Radebeul
Radebeul
Villa Wach, aranyised in 1939 and appropriated from the Wach family, became the following year a national leader school as DRK Landesführerschule IV with the reichsadler affixed onto its pediment as shown in the period photograph. It also served during the war as an hospital used by the German Red Cross. After the war until 1957 it was used by the Soviet army as a gaol; today it serves as a children's and youth services centre. During the Second World War there was hardly any destruction in the town itself. Thirty-one  inhabitants on Ahornstraße were killed after their houses were destroyed by explosive bombs; a bronze plaque commemorates this at Ahornstraße 2/4. On May 7 and 8, 1945, Radebeul was occupied by the Soviet army almost without fighting, but the Niederwartha bridge was still blown up by German troops on May 8th. The Soviet military administration confiscated numerous large buildings and villas for their purposes in the following weeks, and even until 1947; The inhabitants were partly forced to settle elsewhere until January 1950.

Schkeuditz 
Schkeuditz
The town hall on Adolf-Hitler-Platz and today. Located in the south-east of the city is the former Rittergut Altscherbitz which, from 1876, was used as the provincial Altscherbitz mental institution. During the Nazi era it served as the "Zwischenanstalt" for the killing institution Bernburg under the T4 action where the disabled were murdered. On April 18, 1945, American troops entered the city before being replaced by the Red Army on July 2nd. After the end of the war, about 4,500 refugees came to the city.


Augustusburg
Augustusburg
 The town as shown in a Nazi postcard and today. At the beginning of the Nazi era about 120 anti-Nazis were arrested here and interned within the surrounding "protective custody camps" in the summer of 1933 and forced to perform labour. A plaque commemorates this event as well as a memorial in Erdmannsdorf for all victims of fascism. Within the cemetery of Erdmannsdorf are buried four unknown concentration camp inmates who were murdered during a death march from Flossenburg camp in April 1945 by ϟϟ men.
The former Gauführerschule and today, now known simply as schloss Augustusburg. It is claimed that the furniture from the Reichschancellery was sent here before the end of the war, later to be confiscated by the Soviets. 

 The Lehngericht Augustusburg sporting the Nazi flag during the war and being renovated today

Kamenz
Birthplace of  Bruno Hauptmann, convicted kidnapper of the son of Charles Lindbergh.

Bautzener Straße 
Bautzener Straße. During the Second World War, from October 1944 to April 1945, an extermination camp of the Groß-Rosen concentration camp was built in the building of the derelict cloth factory Gebr. Noßke & Co. at Herrental 9. It held 150 Jews, for whom Daimler-Benz AG had used to manufacture aircraft engine parts. 

Bautzen
Husarenkaserne 
Husarenkaserne during the war and today. During the Nazi era many political opponents, socialists and communists, and also Jehovah's Witnesses, were imprisoned in the city. In March 1933 the copper and aluminum, rolled, wire and hammer works C.G.Tietzens Eidamm (Kupferhammer) served in the valley road as a protective camp for 500 German and Sorbian opponents of Hitler. The Trade Union House served the same purposes on today's Dr. Maria-Grollmuß-Strasse 1 and the Haus Outer Lauenstrasse 33 as it does today. Ernst Thälmann was imprisoned in Bautzen I until his transport to Buchenwald concentration camp in 1943/44. Many political prisoners were also interned in the Bautzen II detention centre, such as the well-known Czech journalist Julius Fučík. In the south of the city, directly on the river Spree, there was also an external camp of the Groß-Rosen concentration camp, where 1,000 to 1500 prisoners, mainly Jews, were involved in the armament production of the wagon building and machinery factory. Busch (Wumag) of the Flick Group. In the interwar period, Bautzen was also the seat of the so-called Wend Department, which was established for the state surveillance of the Sorbian people, and was used for this purpose both in the Weimar Republic and among the national socialists.
In the Second World War, the city was particularly badly damaged between 19 and 26 April 1945. The domes of the Lauenturm and the Michaeliskirche were destroyed, nearly all bridges were blown up, but the railway viaduct was not till after the 4th of May. There were many death sacrifices to complain about. On April 26, 1945, in the Battle of Bautzen, the last major German Panzer-attack of the Second World War took place; The city was recaptured and remained in German hands until the surrender. 


Crimmitschau  
Crimmitschau   
The railway station during the war sporting a swastika and today, practically unchanged. In 1944, some Crimmitschau property was bombed by Allied Forces. On July 7, 1944 for example, bombs destroyed several houses on the Leitelshainer / Freund- und Hohlstraße. It was not, however, a systematic air target for the Allies. On April 13 and 14, 1945 US tanks appeared on the motorway from Meerane and had taken the city on 15 April. Because of the statements of Yalta and Teheran, the Americans left Westsachsen and on July 1, 1945, the Red Army entered Crimmitschau.


Freiberg
Nicolaikirche under the Hakenkreuzfahne and today. On May 1, 1933 Freiberg churches held a "Patriotic Celebration." Reverend Paul Gotthelf Schwen wrote in the community newsletter of St. James "that God sent Adolf Hitler as the saviour to us."
In 1944 a subcamp of Flossenbürg concentration camp was built outside the town of Freiberg, housing over 500 female survivors of other camps, including Auschwitz Birkenau. Altogether 50 or so ϟϟ women worked in this camp until its evacuation in April 1945. The female survivors eventually reached Mauthausen concentration camp in Austria. 
Throughout the town there are numerous memorials commemorating events from the war including a plaque at the Saxon Porcelain Factory GmbH where, in the spring of 1933, political opponents of the regime were detained and tortured by the Nazi authorities but which for unknown reasons was removed after 1990. Another plaque commemorates the 1000 Jewish female prisoners at the subcamp of Flossenburg and Polish forced labourers who were kidnapped and victims of forced labour. Another plaque at the same site can be seen for the Jewish director of the porcelain factory, Dr. Werner Hofmann, who killed himself in 1939. One final plaque commemorates Dr. Werner Hartenstein, the mayor of the city from 1924 to 1945 who managed to save the town from unnecessary losses. He was then arrested by the NKVD in June 1945, and died February 11 1947 at the Jamlitz Special Camp
 
The 1843 Schwedendenkmal on the former Platz der SA looking down Peterstraße.


Görlitz
Görlitz rathaus


 The rathaus in 1940 and today. Görlitz is the easternmost town in the country, located on the Lusatian Neisse River in Saxony opposite the Polish town of Zgorzelec, which was a part of Görlitz until 1945. Görlitz was almost completely spared in the Second World War by destruction.  A special feature of the city is that all important phases of the development of Central European settlements have been preserved and readable without major structural changes. With over 4000 largely restored cultural and architectural features , Görlitz is often referred to as the largest connected monumental monument in Germany. The inner city image is characterised by late Gothic , Renaissance and Baroque burgher houses in the Old Town as well as an extended period of the Gründerzeit district around the old town. Because of this particular cityscape, Görlitz is also a coveted film turning site, which gave the city the nickname "Görliwood" . 
Near the end of the war German troops destroyed all bridges crossing the Lusatian Neisse. The redrawing of boundaries in 1945—in particular the relocation of the German-Polish border to the present Oder-Neisse line—divided the town. The right bank became part of Poland and was renamed Zgorzelec by the Polish communist government in 1948, while the main portion on the left bank remained part of Germany, now within the state of Saxony. When the East German states were dissolved in 1952, Görlitz became part of the Dresden District, but the states were restored upon German reunification in 1990.

Schlettau im Erzgebirge 
Schlettau im Erzgebirge  
The rathaus during the Nazi-era and today


Löbau
Löbau rathaus 
The rathaus sporting a swastikas above the entrance during the Nazi era and today, flag-free
 
The Kasernenwache in 1941 and today, renamed the Jägerkaserne
 
Adolf-Hitler-Platz, today Wettiner Platz. Hitler was driven through here on October 6, 1938
Looking at Adolf-Hitler-Platz from the other direction, now the altmarkt

Zittau
Grenzlandtheater
The Grenzlandtheater in 1942 and today, the Gerhart Hauptmann theatre. As with the rest of Germany, Jewish residents were persecuted, expelled, and murdered in Zittau during the period of National Socialism. The synagogue was blown up during the November pogrom in 1938. At least 40 Jews from Zittau and Löbau were murdered during the Holocaust.  Towards the end of the war, external camps of the Groß-Rosen concentration camp and the Auschwitz concentration camp were set up for male and female concentration camp prisoners, who had to carry out forced labour in the quarries, a part of Junkers Flugzeug- und Motorenwerke AG. Inhuman conditions led to at least 158 ​​deaths. During the Nazi era a large part of the Czech minority was expelled from the city and its surroundings. After the war the German population was expelled from Bohemian territory and from then on, under Polish administration, east of the Neisse. After the end of the war, there was a strong Czech minority in the city, which had a population of 4,000, and undertook efforts to annex the city of Czechoslovakia. In 1948 these efforts were rejected in the course of the Warsaw Convention.


Obergurig 
Hans Schemm Schule
Hans Schemm Schule, named after the founder of the National Socialist Teachers' Federation. In 1928, Schemm became a member of the Bavarian Landtag.  Systematically, Schemm prepared the local NSDAP for the election campaigns, first for the City Council in 1929. The Nazis won 9 mandates, and Schemm became factional chairman. The arrival of the Nazi faction led to frequent stormy sessions and one brawl, which were caused by the Nazi members', and in particular Schemm's, aggressive attitude. In 1928 and 1929 Schemm took over the leadership of several Nazi newspapers (Streiter, Weckruf and Nationale Zeitung), which he however gave up after a short time. In April 1929, Schemm founded his own newspaper, and in August of the same year appeared in the Nationalsozialistische Lehrerzeitung ("National Socialist Teachers' Newspaper"), the National Socialist Teachers League's (NSLB) journalistic organ.   On March 5, 1935, Schemm died after an aircraft crash. Hitler personally ordered Berlin Professor Ferdinand Sauerbruch to fly to Bayreuth. Schemm, however, succumbed to his injuries before the professor's arrival. His successor as Gauleiter was Fritz Wächtler. Schemm's life had been glorified by the Nazis, and somewhat even later after the Nazis were gone. In the time of the Nazi regime nevertheless various schools, streets, and halls in Nazi Germany were named after him.

Riesa an der Elbe
Riesa an der Elbe
Another Hans Schemm Schule doesn't appear to have survived the war, unlike the neighbouring Pestalozzi Schule.

Sayda im Erzgebirge
 The church "Zu unserer lieben Frauen" dating from 1391 on Adolf Hitler Straße seen from Hindenburgplatz 

 Bad Düben 

Schützenhaus 
The Schützenhaus, now an hotel, flying the swastika and today

 Neuhausen

 
 The Schwartenberghaus with and without flags


Schwarzenberg
Schwarzenberg thingplatz
In the early 1930s, the idea arose of converting the upper quarry into an arena for large-scale events. This was done in the context of the Nazi Thing movement, and a large part of the dynamiting, transport and construction work was done by the Workers' Labour Service. A total of 1,300 workers were involved in the project, and according to contemporary accounts, professionals were responsible for 20,000 days of work, Labour Service workers for 60,000. The sod-breaking took place on 7 April 1934, but costs greatly exceeded the estimates, and the project was only completed after the Propaganda Ministry and the State of Saxony provided additional funds. The arena was inaugurated on 25–26 June 1938 as a Feierstätte der Volksgemeinschaft (ceremonial site for the folk community), the Grenzlandfeierstätte (Borderlands Ceremonial Site). A copper container containing construction plans, a newspaper and coins was sealed into the masonry to the right of the stage. The theatre was operated in cooperation with those at Borna and Kamenz; in 1938–39, the theatre troupe from the open-air theatre at Ehrenfriedersdorf also played there.   After Germany’s surrender in the Second World War, Schwarzenberg remained, for historically unclear reasons, unoccupied at first. On 11 May 1945, several antifascist Schwarzenberg citizens took the initiative of filling the resulting power vacuum. This episode lasted only until 25 June 1945 when Soviet troops marched in. In 1984, the writer Stefan Heym coined the term “Republic of Schwarzenberg” in his novel Schwarzenberg, which was based on the episode. A lively accumulation of legends is bound up with this time.


Schmilka, Bad Schandau (Saxony)
 
The Gasthaus zur Mühle with hakenkreuz in front, and today


Müglitz (Altenberg) 
 
The Gasthof zur Grenzschenkein 1942 sporting swastika flags and today- considerably run-down
Aue
A subcamp of the Flossenbürg concentration camp was located here at Aue during the war.
 
Adolf-Hitler-Brücke, opened June 5, 1937  is now known as Bahnhofsbrücke


Wernsdorf 
 
No Nazi flag outside the Gasthaus Weißes Roß anymore

Sohland an der Spree
 
The marktplatz during the Third Reich surrounded by Nazi flags and today


Frankenberg
Schloß Sachsenburg
Schloß Sachsenburg when it served as a Gauführerinnenschule. In 1933 the schloß briefly served as a detention camp when on May 2, 1933 the first prisoners arrived, being used as workmen who were to erect a protective camp. The castle grounds itself, however, served only for about a month. It was one of the first concentration camps under the Nazis and existed until 1937. Among the best known inmates were the communist writer Bruno Apitz ("Nackt unter Wölfen") as well as the publisher and publicist Walter Janka.  The castle grounds themselves were then used again as training grounds for groups like the BDM. One of the BDM girls is said to have been saved by a prisoner from drowning in Zschopau. Towards the end of the Nazi dictatorship the castle finally housed a research institute of the Wehrmacht. From the mid-1930s it served as the NSDAP Gauführerinnenschule for Saxony. Towards the end of the war, the castle was then used as a bacteriological Institute as a branch of the Robert Koch Institute. After the war the Sachsenburg served as residence for evacuees before 1947 Youth Werkhof has been established, which existed until 1967.
 
Nazi flags displayed in the marketplace in a Nazi-era postcard

Wilkau Haßlau
Wilkau Haßlau rathaus
The rathaus bedecked in swastikas during the war and now


Lauenhain
 
The SA Seesportübungslager with Schiffsnachbau in the background 

Freiberg

Swastikas flying at the Obermarkt in a Nazi-era postcard. In 1944, a subcamp of Flossenbürg concentration camp, was built outside this town which had housed over 500 female survivors of other camps, including Auschwitz Birkenau. Altogether 50 or so ϟϟ women worked in this camp until its evacuation in April 1945. The female survivors eventually reached Mauthausen concentration camp in Austria.


Lössnitz
 On April 20, 1945, the town’s deputy mayor Rudolf Weber, who wanted to surrender the town to the Americans without a fight, was shot by the Waffen-ϟϟ.
 
Adolf-Hitler-Platz before the war and now

Leipzig
 The city's mayor from 1930 to 1937, Carl Friedrich Goerdeler was a noted opponent of the Nazi regime in Germany. He resigned in 1937 when, in his absence, his Nazi deputy ordered the destruction of the city's statue of Felix Mendelssohn. On Kristallnacht in 1938, one of the city's most architecturally significant buildings, the 1855 Moorish Revival Leipzig synagogue was deliberately destroyed. Leipzig after bombing in World War II  Several thousand forced labourers were stationed in Leipzig during World War II. 
Stentzlers Hof
Stentzlers Hof decked with swastikas than and now
 
The hauptbahnhof looks remarkably unchanged since the 1938 postcard when swastikas flew in front considering the damage incurred after the bombing of July 7, 1944.
Wermsdorf Müttererholungsheim The National Socialist National Welfare Service operated a mother's home here in Wermsdorf. The NSV- Müttererholungsheim  was located in the baroque building of the former post office in 1935, intended exclusively as "education for self-help." In a letter dated June 1936, Wermsdorf Mayor Boßdorf reported that 35 people were accommodated in the mothers' home, changing every four weeks. The women with their children, who were accommodated here, were prepared for their task as housewife and mother. The Wermsdorfer women's service was taken over by the NSV to reinforce the staff. It was only allowed to the people who had previously entered the NSV.
The whole nature of the Wermsdorfer complex with its large garden, flowerbeds and children's play area corresponded to the "mother and child" charity which provided a relaxing holiday for four weeks. The mothers were relieved of the care of their infants and toddlers by sisters. The "Aryan" women were accompanied throughout the pregnancy as well as after the birth of the child. The women, who were young women of 20-30 years were preparing the food for the children in the in-house kitchen. These organised festivals, raffles for the Winterhilfswerk, and held compulsory meetings. Training sessions on public health and propaganda were regularly on the agenda. The Nazis also hoped that the birth rate was to be increased to bear sons for the war.
Völkerschlachtdenkmal GIF
The Völkerschlachtdenkmal (Monument to the Battle of the Nations) in 1940 and today. Built to commemorate Napoleon's defeat at the 1813 Battle of Leipzig, a crucial step towards the end of hostilities in the War of the Sixth Coalition, which was seen as a victory for the German people, although Germany did not exist at that time.
It was completed in 1913 for the 100th anniversary of the battle, at a cost of 6,000,000 Goldmarks  and stands at 299 feet in height. It contains over 500 steps to a viewing platform at the top, from which there are spectacular views across the city and environs. It is said to stand on the spot of some of the bloodiest fighting, from where Napoleon ordered the retreat of his army
 
Construction of the monument in 1907 and 1912, just before the centenary of the Battle of Nations
 
Hitler speaking at the Völkerschlachtdenkmal. During the Third Reich, Hitler frequently used the monument as a venue for his meetings in Leipzig. It was here on July 16, 1933 that Hitler announced to 140,000 men of the SA, ϟϟ and the Stahlhelm

Today we are not leading a mere thirteen or seventeen million, but the entire Volk, and hence the gigantic task accrues to us of training the millions of people who do not yet inwardly belong to us to become soldiers of this Third Reich, to become soldiers of our Weltanschauung.
 
An American soldier surveying the aftermath and the site today. The monument itself served as the backdrop for an anti-fascist demonstration in 2011. When the US army captured Leipzig on April 18, 1945, the monument was one of the last strongholds in the city to surrender. One hundred and fifty ϟϟ soldiers with ammunition and foodstuffs stored in the structure to last three months dug themselves in, but were blasted with artillery and defeated.  During the period of Communist rule in East Germany, the government of the DDR was unsure whether it should allow the monument to stand, since it was considered to represent the steadfast nationalism of the period of the German Empire. Eventually, it was decided that the monument be allowed to remain, since it represented a battle in which Russian and German soldiers had fought together against a common enemy, and was therefore representative of Deutsch-russische Waffenbrüderschaft (Russo-German brotherhood-in-arms). 
The city was heavily damaged by Allied bombing during the war. Unlike its neighbouring city of Dresden this was largely conventional bombing, with high explosives rather than incendiaries. The resultant pattern of loss was a patchwork, rather than wholesale loss of its centre, but was nevertheless extensive.  The Allied ground advance into Germany reached Leipzig in late April 1945. The U.S. 2nd Infantry Division and U.S. 69th Infantry Division fought into the city on 18 April and completed its capture after fierce urban combat, in which fighting was often house-to-house and block-to-block, on 19 April 1945. 
In April 1945 the Deputy Mayor of Leipzig, Ernest Lisso, his wife, daughter and a Volkssturm Major Walter Dönicke committed suicide in the Leipzig City Hall.  The U.S. turned the city over to the Red Army as it pulled back from the line of contact with Soviet forces in July 1945 to the predesignated occupation zone boundaries. Leipzig became one of the major cities of the German Democratic Republic (East Germany).
 
It was here at the Zoologischer Garten on December 11, 1932 that Hitler announced
I am the one who has fixed the price of the Movement. No one will offer it at less than that. But if anyone should ever be found to do so, he would be lost in the Party within an hour and would have no Movement behind him. We will not allow ourselves to be lured into the den of intrigue where the others are experts at the game [here clearly referring to Gregor Strasser who had been offered the post of Vice-Chancellor in a bid by the authorities to split the party]. 
Time will not wear me down. Certainly we lost thirty seats, but in the meantime our opponents have lost two governments! And the new Cabinet will not last any longer. We will regain those thirty seats. Our supply of recruits is larger than theirs, and I will place this task first and foremost and without any consideration to myself.
On January 2 the Burgfriede will be over, and on the third we will be back in the thick of the fight.
Markranstädt  
 
St. Laurentius church at Platz der SA then and now. The town was well known until the Second World War for Markranstädter Pilsener beer. At the beginning of the Nazi era, opponents of the Nazi regime were persecuted and imprisoned. On March 11, 1933, the Communist Oswald Jäckel was assassinated by SA men. In his memory, an old people's home and today's Krakauer Straße bore its name in the DDR era.
Pirna
The town hall in 1933, sporting the Nazi flag. After the Reichstag election in March 1933, the Nazis reached more than 40 percent of the votes in the Pirna municipal office. Mass spectacles, book burnings and persecutions followed. On March 9, 1933, in Pirna, too, street books were burnt in front of the Volksbuchhandlung and a newspaper (the "Volkszeitung") was banned. In 1928, Hermann Paul Nitsche was appointed Director of the Sonnenstein Institute, which had grown to more than 700 patients. With his inception, the systematic exclusion of chronically mentally ill people began. As advocates of "national socialist racial hygiene" and euthanasia, he carried out compulsory sterilisation, questionable forced treatment and food deprivation. In December 1939, the institution was closed and set up as a reservelazarett and resettlement camp.  The plant was notorious for its commitment under the T4 action when 13,720 patients and more than 1,000 concentration camp prisoners were gassed by the doctor Horst Schumann in Pirna from June 1940 to August 1941. Most euthanasia victims came from psychiatric institutions, homes for the mentally handicapped, as well as retirement and nursing homes. In the times of the "Hochbetriebs", more than 200 people were gassed per working day. Despite the strictest secrecy in the killing institute, rumours about the medical murders were circulating in the Pirna population. The fact that the populace was silent about this may have been associated with passive acceptance and diffuse fear of sanctions. During the Nazi era the Hermann-Göring-settlement in the "Heimatschutzstil" was built in the southern suburbs, today's musicians and painters, so named after the current street names.  In Pirna on the night of November 10th, 1938, four Jewish shops were destroyed; a memorial in the Schössergasse corner commemorates it.  Toward the end of the Second World War, from 10 January to the middle of April 1945, more than 1000 prisoners were forced to work for Deutsche Gasolin in the area of ​​the "Alte Post" in the Mockenhal / Zatzschke concentration camp of Flossenbürg, And for the HASAG in the Oberterminische Mineralölwerk Herrenleite ("Carnallit"). The number of prisoners cited includes several hundred prisoners evacuated from Dresden, including Polish Jews from the Striesen metal works. In the Second World War there were a total of 3,500 dead in Pirna, 203 of them killed by Anglo-American bombs. 760 dwellings were destroyed during the war. On April 19, 1945, American bomber raids were the last bomb attack on Pirna, in which the Elbe bridge and several buildings, including the monastery church, were destroyed. On May 8 Soviet troops occupied the city.
From early 1940 until end of June 1942, a part of the huge mental asylum within Sonnenstein Castle overlooking Pirna was converted into a euthanasia killing centre: the Sonnenstein Nazi Death Institute. This was the first use of techniques later rolled out and refined for use within the Final Solution. A gas chamber and crematorium were installed in the cellar of the former men's sanitary (building C 16). A high brick-wall on two sides of the complex shielded it from outside while a high hoarding was erected on the other sides. Four buildings were located inside the shielding. They were used for offices, living rooms for the personnel etc. Sleeping quarters for the "burners" (men who burned the bodies) were provided for in the attic of building C 16. It is possible that other sections of the buildings were also used by T4.  From end of June 1940 until September 1942, approximately 15,000 persons were killed in the scope of the euthanasia programme and the Sonderbehandlung 14f13. The staff consisted of about 100 persons. One third of them were ordered to the extermination camps in occupied Poland, because of their experiences in deception, killing, gassing and burning innocent people.  There they were trained by the killing groups who mounted the killing machinery in the later camps like Treblinka from TishBeAv 1942 and the others.  During August and September 1942, the Sonnenstein killing centre was closed and incriminating installations such as gas chamber installations and crematorium ovens dismantled. After October 1942, the buildings were used as a military hospital.  This part of the history of Pirna went largely unrecognised in Germany until 1989, but after that efforts to remember that catastrophe started. In June 2000 a permanent exhibition opened concerning this period.

Glauchau

 
Glauchau railway station in 1941 and today


Oschatz
Oschatz Hitlerplatz
The Rathaus and St Aegidien church at Adolf Hitler Platz and today. From April to May 1933 a concentration camp was established in the municipal camp of Pappenheim. On July 1, 1934, the town of Zschollau was incorporated into the town. One year later, the Oschatzer Fliegerhorst was built and a rebuilding school was formed. During the war from February 1941 to April 1945 the main administration of the prisoner of war Stalag IV G of the German Wehrmacht was located in Oschatzer Lutherstraße. From here, tens of thousands of prisoners of war were distributed to compulsory labour in the near and further surrounding areas. On April 26, 1945, Oschatz was handed over to the Allies without a fight. On May 5 they were replaced by Soviet troops.


Plauen im Vogtland
In the 1930s, Plauen earned the distinction of hosting the first chapter of the Nazi Party outside of Bavaria. Plauen's population, however, has shrunk dramatically since the Second World War (1939: 111,000 inhabitants). It was occupied by American troops in 16 April 1945 but was left to Red Army in 1 July 1945 after which time it fell into the Soviet occupation zone of Germany, which later became the German Democratic Republic (1949-1990). Plauen hosted a large Red Army occupation garrison and, in the last years of the DDR, an officer school of the Border Guards ("Grenztruppen der DDR").
 
Swastikas in the square in front of the rathaus and today

Hohenstein-Ernstthal
The birthplace of Karl May, Hitler's favourite author.
Adolf became gripped by the adventure stories of Karl May, whose popular tales of the Wild West and Indian wars (though May had never been to America) enthralled thousands of youngsters. Most of these youngsters graduated from the Karl May adventures and the childhood fantasies they fostered as they grew up. For Adolf, however, the fascination with Karl May never faded. As Reich Chancellor, he still read the May stories, recommending them, too, to his generals, whom he accused of lacking imagination.
Kershaw (9) Hitler
During the Second World War, from 10 December 1944 to mid-April 1945, an outside camp of the Flossenbürg concentration camp was set up in the village, in which 444 concentration camp prisoners had to carry out forced labour in the armaments industry in the village and neighbouring Siegmar-Schönau. To this were added prisoners of war and forced labourers from the countries occupied by Germany.

Hammerleubsdorf, Leubsdorf

The former Gauschule shown flying the Nazi flag is now a pale, derelict structure

Bad Brambach 
Bad Brambach Kapellenbergturm on the Schönberg  
The Kapellenbergturm on the Schönberg 


Raschwitz Markkleeberg
Raschwitz Markkleeberg Forsthaus
The Forsthaus, back when it flew the swastika, and today on Koburgerstraße 33 where it serves as a restaurant and biergarten.


 Eilenburg 
 
The bahnhof sporting the swastika and today
About two weeks before the end of the war Eilenburg was almost completely destroyed. On 17 April 1945 American troops reached Eilenburg, which German defences were ordered to hold. For three days and nights the town was under heavy artillery fire, which destroyed most of the buildings of the city. Two hundred people were killed and 90 percent of the town centre and 65 percent of the buildings of the whole town were destroyed; the American army had nearly no losses. Eilenburg was one of the most heavily damaged cities in Germany.


Rochlitz 
The Hitler Youth flag flying atop the Schulkameradentag Pfingsten in 1938, now simply the Mittelschule
Rochlitz rathaus
The rathaus sporting a swastika and today. During the Second World War, a subcamp of Flossenbürg concentration camp was located in the town from September 1944 to March 1945. The camp held about 600 Jewish women. 
During the Third Reich the Nazis gained an early foothold in the city council and in 1934 removed nonpartisan mayor Rudolf Herrmann by means of a political intrigue. A year earlier Adolf Hitler and Paul von Hindenburg were made honorary citizens of the city. The town bridge was built and named after Gauleiter Martin Mutschmann. 1936 saw the town host the "Festival of Landscape- 1000 years German". The cumbersome title suggests that this was a historical construct although the Rochlitzer area was said to have been the site of the death in 936 of King Henry I. From 1938 the arms industry moved into the city, and probably from 19 September 1944 to 28 March 1945, a subcamp of Flossenburg concentration camp with about 600 imprisoned Jewish women was opened. These women had to do forced labour in mechanics. There is no commemoration of this in the town. 
The was taken on April 14, 1945 by units of the 76th Infantry and 6th Armoured Division of the 3rd US Army. Here formed the line of demarcation between Americans and Russians. The former withdrew from the city on June 30. At the Muldenbrücke in April 2003 a plaque was installed, which commemorates the "liberation" of the city.

Zwickau
 
The rathaus and Gewandhaus (theatre) surrounded by swastikas on the 800th anniversary of the town. 


Zwickau Planitz
 
The swimming pool looks practically unchanged since the time swastikas flew from the promenade. Today the historic Johannisbad baths in Zwickau has been forced to ban all migrants from the premises until further notice after a gang of migrant men invited by the hundreds of thousands by Chancellor Merkel sexually assaulted German women and caught "emptying their bowels" in the children's pool and masturbating in a hot tub. In a leaked internal memo it was revealed that "men wanted to forcibly penetrate the female changing room" but after "several asylum seekers were reportedly arrested in connection with the claims", they were simply released. 

Lengenfeld 
 
9 km southwest of Zwickau is Lengenfeld; its town hall sporting a swastika and today


Geringswalde
Nazi Geringswalde
Swastika on the town hall and the market square today.

Schildau
Schildau Bergturm sporting a Nazi flag
The Bergturm sporting a Nazi flag for a period postcard and today 

Döbeln 
 
The town pool with swastikas and today. The town has a number of memorials commemorating crimes of the past, including one in front of the crematorium in the graveyard for twenty-one Polish and Russian men and women who were transported to Germany during the war and died as slave labourers, another at Wettinplatz for all victims of fascism, and one in front of the Lessing School for ALL victims of war and dictatorship between the years 1933 and 1989.