Showing posts with label Eichstätt. Show all posts
Showing posts with label Eichstätt. Show all posts

More Sites in Upper Bavaria

Moosburg
 Мосбург-ан-дер-Изар (нем. Moosburg an der Isar) — город в Германии, в земле Бавария.  Подчинён административному округу Верхняя Бавария. Входит в состав района Фрайзинг. Население составляет 17 554 человека (на 31 декабря 2010 года). Занимает площадь 43,86 км². Официальный код — 09 1 78 143.
Münchenerstraße during the NSDAP era
Stalag VIIA
In September 1939, a prisoner of war camp Stalag VII-A was built to accommodate 10,000. The General Command of the Military District VII in Munich chose this site between the Isar and Amper rivers.
The first prisoners arrived on 19 October 1939. They were initially housed temporarily in tents. In the hall of an adjacent fertilizer factory a delousing station was built. From 1940 additional barracks were built and by the summer of 1940, the area of ​​the camp had grown to 350,000 m². Poles and Ukrainians were initially in the camp mainly housed. After the Western Campaign of 1940 French (and soldiers of Polish units in France) were increasingly deported here followed after the attack on the Soviet Union by a large number of Soviet prisoners. By the end of the war, the number of passengers grew to 80,000 at (including 200 generals alone); they were used in surrounding industries, in agriculture and in industry. Tens of thousands of prisoners of war were housed in subcamps and labour detachments around the area. About 2000 German guards of the 512. Landeschützen-Bataillons were stationed in a separate barracks area. Due to the presence of the camp the entire surrounding of bombings spared.

By early 1945, the number of registered prisoners had grown to more than 80,000 - many working in regional industries and farms. It is likely that the presence of this camp close to the town centre spared it from large-scale bombing.  
 On April 29, 1945 the camp was liberated by a unit of the 14th Armoured Division of the United States Army under General Charles H. Karlstad, wherein the ordered transfer of the camp occurred almost without a fight. The site was converted into a detention center for 12,000 German civilians held accountable for their activities during the period of National Socialism- the "Civilian Internment Camp No. 6 ". The camp was released by the Americans in 1948 and served to house German refugees exiled from eastern areas. It became a new part of the town, named Moosburg-Neustadt. Three remaining guard barracks were included in the Bavarian monument list on February 15, 2013.

The entrance to the camp, and the town itself shown in the background
Moosburg Stammlager VIIA, 1945. Pictures from Edward J. Paluch 780 Bomb Squadron. From Fall 1944- Feb 1945 interned in Stalag Luft III. This town about 20km from where I live was the site of Stalag VII A, a POW camp covering an area of 85 acres which also served also as a transit camp through which prisoners, including officers, were processed on their way to another camp. At some time during the war prisoners from every nation fighting against Germany passed through it. By the time it had been liberated on April 29 1945, there were 130,000 prisoners from at least 26 nations on the camp roster. It was thus the largest prisoner of war camp in Germany.
Moosburg an der Isar (eller Moosburg a.d.Isar) er den ældste by i Landkreis Freising Regierungsbezirk Oberbayern i den tyske delstat Bayern. Den ligger 45 km nordøst for München halvejs mellem Freising Landshut i Niederbayern, omkranset af floderne Isar og Amper. Den internationale Flughafen München Franz Josef Strauß er kun 15 km væk og nåes let ad motorvej A92 der passerer byen.  Geografisk er byen præget af de mange bække, floder og kanaler i området. Ud over Amper munder også floderne Sempt, Strogen og Dorfen ud i Isar.
 
Moosburg concentration camp warden from the video game Death to Spies: Moment of Truth, where he wears an armband signifying he's from the 5th ϟϟ Panzer Division Wiking. In the centre is Oberst Hans Nepf, Lagerkommandant 1939-1943, and his succesor Oberst Otto Burger. 
The cemetery of the camp was situated here in the south-western outskirts of Moosburg, an area called Oberreit, among whom 22 or 23 buried were British. From 1946- 1958 the mortal remains moved to central cemeteries before finally being closed in 1958 when 866 bodies were exhumed and reburied at the military cemetery in Schwabstadl near Landsberg. The bodies of 33 Italians were reburied at the Italian Memorial Cemetery near Munich. In 1982 the Moosburg City Council purchased a plot at the site of the old Oberreit cemetery and erected a wooden cross with a simple stone remembering the dead of Stalag VII A.

In the autumn of 2014 on the 75th anniversary of the opening of the camp, this historical marker was relocated at the site, its façade covered by this bronze plaque but steel helmet remaining above.
Today the municipal authorities have seen fit to place a dog association right next to it...
 
...whilst in the town itself this memorial, the Heimatvertriebenen, from 1958 commemorates the Germans' suffering; by 1950 1,931 out of 8,677 Moosburg citizens were refugees fleeing the Soviets. On the right are views down the same road, Sudetenlandstraße, then and now.
 
Today there are still vestiges of the original barracks being used, and along Schlesierstraße
For a site devoted entirely to Moosburg: Moosburg Online
  
Nearby in front of St. Pius church on land devoted to serve as a memorial to the prisoners of the stalag is this fountain, the Stalag Gedenkbrunnen, which had been created by a French prisoner in 1942 and set up in 1963.
    
Hitlerjugend in 1937 and the site today
Bürgermeister Dr. Müller in front of the memorial on March 10, 1940 and today, the Nazi flags being replaced by the red ensign
 
Moosburg railway station in 1935 and now
 
Landstraße

 
In 1936 and during the 2016 Herbstshau

My favourite Pub on Herrnstraße, formerly a bakery, and looking the other way towards Herrnstraße 293, the second building on the right, where the Jewish administration was housed after the war from January 1946 to February 1951. 
When the Allied forces conquered Germany, they were able to liberate some tens of thousands of Jewish prisoners. Between 1945 and 1950, however, the former Third Reich became a temporary place of refuge for about 200,000 Shoah survivors. Besides the prisoners freed from the work and death camps, these were people who had fled from the Nazis to Russia, fought in Eastern Europe with the partisans, or in some other way managed to survive underground. Starting in the fall of 1945, the US military government set up special Displaced Persons (DP) camps for them. For a short time, the US General Eisenhower had even considered allowing the Jews to set up their own territory in Bavaria. This plan had been proposed to him by David Ben-Gurion, who was travelling through occupied Germany at that time. However, a Bavarian Jewish state was never established. Nevertheless, the Americans conceded wide-ranging rights of self-determination to the Shoah survivors. The British, Russians, and French granted no such privileges. Supplies, too, were more plentiful in the American zone, and so about 85 percent of all Jewish DPs settled here, considering their residence, however, as but a temporary measure. The overwhelming majority believed that their future would only be guaranteed in a country of their own, convinced that “only Eretz Israel will succeed in absorbing and healing them, help them regain their national and human balance.” As the state of Israel would not be established until 1948, some Jews dreamed also of a new life in the USA, Canada or Australia.

The rathaus then and now

The bridge that was the main strategic objective in the battle between Patton and the German SS in Moosburg. The Germans eventually bombed the bridge in order to keep the American tanks from crossing it. The battle didn't last long, regardless, and the 10,000's of POWs in the prison camp there were soon liberated.
Next to the bridge is the Gasthof zur Länd, shown in 1941, April 29, 1945 with Major-General A.C. Smith of the 14th Armoured Div. of the 3rd U.S. army overseeing the building of the auxiliary bridge over the Isar by the 300th Combat Engineers, and 73 years later.
About 30 km south of Landshut is the tiny town of Dorfen, its Marienplatz shown here during the Nazi-zeit and today 

Erding

Landsberg am Lech
Alte Bergstraße hasn't changed much
The town is noted for its prison where Adolf Hitler was incarcerated in 1924. During this incarceration Hitler wrote/dictated his book Mein Kampf together with Rudolf Hess. His cell, number 7, became part of the Nazi cult and many followers came to visit it during the German Nazi-period. Landsberg am Lech was also known as the town of the Hitler Youth. Following World War II it was the location for one of the largest Displaced Person (DP) camps for Jewish refugees and the place of execution for more than 150 war criminals after 1945. The Landsberg camp began as a Nazi concentration camp. By October 1944, there were more than 5,000 prisoners in the camp.  The camp was liberated on April 27, 1945 by the 12th Armoured Division of the United States Army. Upon orders from General Taylor, the American forces allowed news media to record the atrocities, and ordered local German civilians and guards to reflect upon the dead and bury them bare-handed. After the liberation of the camp it became a displaced person camp. Consisting primarily of Jewish refugees from the Soviet Union and the Baltic states, it developed into one of the most influential DP camps in the Sh'erit ha-Pletah. It housed a Yiddish newspaper (the Yiddishe Zeitung), religious schools, and organisations to promote Jewish religious observance. Tony Bennett was one of the soldiers who liberated the camp.  A dramatisation of the discovery and liberation of the camp was presented in Episode 9: Why We Fight of the Band of Brothers mini-series.  A number of prominent leaders emerged from the camp, including Samuel Gringauz, who also became the chairman of the Council of the Central Committee of Liberated Jews in the U.S. zone. The camp also served as the headquarters for the Jewish education and training organisation ORT.  The camp closed on October 15, 1950.
Shown  in 1938 with a banner with a large swastika hanging from the roof when the structure served as a memorial to Hitler's incarceration, after the war when holding Nazi prisoners and today. Forty miles west of Munich, this is where, in 1924, Hitler spent 264 days incarceration after being convicted of treason after the failed Munich Beer Hall Putsch the previous year. During this time Hitler dictated and then wrote his book Mein Kampf with assistance from his deputy, Rudolf Hess. Hitler had taken the cell that had held Anton Graf von Arco-Valley who had murdered Bavarian prime minister Kurt Eisner in February 1919.

Posed propaganda shot by Heinrich Hoffmann and Hitler's return in 1934 after taking power.
Conditions were not actually so bad in this ‘cross between a spa hotel and a barracks’. Wooden partitions were erected to give the prisoners privacy. They were allowed to mix to such an extent that Hitler dictated Mein Kampf while there, and received visitors freely. Party insignia were hung from the walls and other Nazis stood to attention before dinner when Hitler entered the hall and took his seat. Perhaps helped by the singularly mild rules of the institution, Hitler was regarded by the warders as a model prisoner. Upon Hitler’s release in December 1924, the prison governor said that if anyone could save Germany, it would be this man.
Martyn Housden (57) Hitler: Study of a Revolutionary?

The gaol on December 30, 1924 after the release of the putschists and as it appears today. From the left are Gerhard Hoff, Walter Hebel, Hans Eduard Krüger, Julius Schaub and Rudlof Heß. The original caption recorded how the car came courtesy from Landsberger alderman and landowner Franz Strobl who met them upon their release.
   
After his release, Hitler posed outside the town's Bayerntor, built in 1425. He returned to pose in 1934 after taking power. From 1937 to 1945 the prison cell at Landsberg am Lech became the third central site of pilgrimage next to Munich , the "City of the movement" , and Nuremberg , the "City of the Party Rallies." Its slogan during the Third Reich was 'Landsberg - Town of youth' and became known additionally as the meeting place of the Hitler Youth- Following the party rallies of 1937 and 1938 delegations of the Hitler Youth marched across the German Reich as part of the "confessional march of the Hitler Youth" to Landsberg . It would culminate with swastika flags, banners and Hitler Jugend torchlight rallies at the Landsberger main square and in the atrium of the fortress prison. In the words of Reich Youth Leader Baldur von Schirach, Landsberg was a "pilgrimage of German youth" and the "station of National Socialist education." The gaol with its "Hitler cell" was to be converted into the largest youth hostel largest of the Reich.  The plan also saw the creation of a gigantic parade stadium, which would have had greater dimensions than the entire historic old town. As German troops invaded Poland September 1 1939 , the "Adolf Hitler march " was cancelled following the " Party Rally of Peace". As early as 1933 the city Lech marketed with all its available resources itself as the "Hitlerstadt" or "Stadt des Führers"and "Birthplace of the ideas of National Socialism." This "Hitler tourism" brought economic recovery and by 1938 100,000 tourists visited the 'Hitler cell.'
From 1933 onwards, the city marketed itself using various sobriquets: Hitler City, City of the Führer, National Socialist Site of Pilgrimage and Birthplace of the Ideas of National Socialism. In 1938, 100,000 visitors came to Landsberg, most incorporating a glimpse of Hitler’s former prison cell into their tour. Eventually, the town received the official honorific City of Youth, because it welcomed thousands of Hitler Youth members in 1937 and 1938 for massive Adolf Hitler marches. The delegates also visited the prison – which had plans to become the biggest youth hostel in the Reich – and received a copy of Mein Kampf as a souvenir.
 
The 'Hitler-Zelle'
The Hauptplatz on September 19 1937 during a rally of Hitlerjugend and today 
video
From the film „Der Marsch zum Führer" showing Hitlerjugend marching to commemorate Hitler's imprisonment in Landsberg am Lech, the final rally in the main square of the city and the address of the Reich Youth Leader Baldur von Schirach. Unlike the earlier Leni Riefenstahl Nuremberg documentaries, it does not focus on the Party congress itself, or on Nazi leaders, who are not shown until the very end of the film. Instead, it follows HJ boys from various parts of Nazi Germany beginning their journey, camping along the route, being taken in by helpful families on the way and marching through cities in formation, saluting and carrying the swastika banner.
 
The "Schöner Turm" bedecked with swastikas in 1937 and today
 
as is the statue in front of the rathaus although here covered by the banners of the Hitlerjugend
 
The Mutterturm seems to have had a fresh coat of paint recently

Pfaffenhofen an der Ilm 
Adolf-Hitler-Platz then and now, renamed Hauptplatz, with the rathaus on the right
Karl Riemer spent the entire time of its existence, from 1933–1945, in the Dachau concentration camp. He fled from the camp on April 26, 1945. He succeeded in getting through to Pfaffenhofen, some 50 kilometres away and already in American hands, by April 29. The American town commandant there assured him immediate help for the prisoners in the Dachau concentration camp. Karl Riemer was unaware that the order for liberating the camp had already been given on the morning of his arrival.


Ingolstadt (oberbayern)
Adolf-Hitler-Platz then and now.
Adolf-Hitler-Platz seen from both directions, the effects of the war clearly seen
The Bavarian King Ludwig III visiting what is now the Polizeimuseum during the First World War. During the Great War future French president Charles de Gaulle was detained there as a prisoner of war.
  
The portal of the Liebfrauenkirche
Theriesenstrasseseen from the church
The entrance to the new schloss then and now. Nearby at the end Tranktorstrasseis the Hotel Zum Anker where I stayed.
The former Platz der SA is now inaccessible
  
The Kreuztor, the seven-turreted guard tower which, with the Feldkirchnertor, are the only ones of the city's four principal gates that survive today, the latter as part of the castle complex.
The bridge over the Danube before the war and after its destruction by the SS on Thursday, April 26 as the American army reached the north bank of the Danube.

BBC News2012-05-26

Eichstätt
This Hitler Jugend haus, completed in 1938, is still a Youth Hostel.
 

The cathedral in 1936 and today. During the Nazi era, Bishop Konrad Count von Preysing was the only Catholic bishopric of Germany to turn against the Reichskonkordat, which was agreed by the Holy See and the Reichsregierung in 1933. Between 1939 and 1945 was located in the eastern suburb of Eichstätt the prison of war Oflag VII B. In addition Eichstätt was from October 1944 to January 1945 location of an outside storage of the concentration camp Flossenbürg. In the town area of Eichstätt there was no significant damage to war by Allied attacks, as opposed to the surrounding municipalities and cities. 
 The Willibaldsbrunnen shows a remarkably unchanged marktplatz in large part thanks to the town's youth:  "The brave boys instantly got their hoses and connected to the water, and it was a real pleasure to see the Pimpfe and Hitler-Jungen rush to the fire" according to the Eichstätter Heimatzeitung on March 13, 1943. Already in July 1940 the party announced: "7000 Hitler Youth are under the fireman's helmet." The average age was 16 years. The training lasted for six months, and the youth learned to operate all fire equipment, "so that they can collaborate with experienced firefighters at each deployment."

Westenstraße with Saint Walburg church in the background
Willibaldsburg 
The Willibaldsburg and Hofmühle appear to have survived the war unscathed.
Altmühl  
Along the canal looking towards the Altmühl
 
The remains of the Eichstätt Thingstätte, built 1935 

Weilheim
Weilheim
Adolf-Hitler-Platz then and now 




NS-Kreistag at the site on June 16, 1938 showing from the left NS-Kreisleiter Hausböck (Garmisch-Partenkirchen, NS-Kreisleiter Dennerl (Weilheim), Stellv. Gauleiter Nippold and Gauleiter Wagner. 
Otto Hoffmeister Haus  
Otto Hoffmeister Haus, used as a youth hostel during the Third Reich
 

The Vier-Jahreszeiten-Brunnen at the former Adolf-Hitler-Platz and today

Rosenheim
 
It was at the Marienbad Sanitarium in Rosenheim that Hermann Wilhelm Göring was born on 12 January 1893. The photo on the right shows the SA marching during the the April 1, 1933 boycott of Jewish-owned businesses. Their signs read: "Germans shop in German stores! The Jew is stirring up hate against Germany! Therefore, do not go to Jewish stores!" 
The number of Jews living in Rosenheim was high compared to other Bavarian cities. However, at the start of the 20th century, the Jewish community consisted of about 50 people. The request to the city council for establishment of a separate Jewish religious association, with reference to the Bavarian-Jewish legislation, was refused, so the Rosenheim Jews remained attached to the state capital, where their dead also had to be buried. Even the funeral of the First World War fallen son of a Jewish merchant based in Rosenheim at the city cemetery was refused and was "the biggest disappointment and the bitterest pain" for the father.  With the creation of the first local Nazi group outside of Munich in 1920, the Rosenheim Jews saw increasing hostility. Centre of hate campaigns was the Rosenheim School. A scandal occurred in June 1920, after a reader accused the writer of a letter Rosenheimer Jews in the local press, who wanted to repeal the provisions of the Versailles Treaty and held military exercises at the Rosenheim School. Seven members of the high school and a member of the "Chiemgau" then raided a villa inhabited by Jews in the Herbststrasse. 
The college of the city of Rosenheim, on 29 July 1920 came to the conclusion that
(... it was regrettable that the people's movement to fight exploitative Jews[...], which certainly was justified in its nature, has been discredited.)
Protests of the Bavarian Jewish Central Association were unsuccessful, only an unmistakable message of the Bavarian Interior Ministry September 1920 was able to maintain peace.  On 1 April 1933, shortly after the Nazi seizure of power, guards were set up in front of Jewish shops, warning against buying in these stores, but to desist assault and criminal damage. A large proportion of the population ignored these calls. The shops were therefore still frequented, much to the annoyance of Nazi activists who acted with the backing of then-Mayor Gmelch. Despite the support of the population, six of the eleven Jewish business owners gave up their businesses by 1937.  The assassination of German diplomat vom Rath by the Jew Herschel Grynszpan on 7 November 1938 in Paris, was taken as a final opportunity to strike against the Jews. The SA came on 10 November at 3–4 o'clock in the morning with 8 to 10 men to the last two Jewish shops and destroyed their inventory and merchandise.  The fate of many Rosenheim Jews is documented. Those who could, emigrated - mostly in the United States. However, many failed entry and exit applications, and many were murdered in concentration camps.

SA marching during the Party Congress in Rosenheim on 1 September 1929 with the same site on Max-Josefs-Platz today.  The number of Jews living in Rosenheim was high compared to other Bavarian cities. Although the Jewish community at the time of the turn of the century included about 50 persons, the application for the founding of a separate Israelite cult association was denied by the municipal authorities with reference to the Bavarian legislation on the Jews, so that the Rosenheim Jews remained connected to the state capital and bury their dead there Had to. Even the funeral of the son of a Jewish merchant in Rosenheim, who died in the First World War, in the city's cemetery, was not allowed "to the greatest disappointment and pain" of his father.  At the latest with the founding of the first NSDAP locality outside Munich in 1920, the Rosenheim Jews were increasingly exposed to hostility. Thus, in June 1920, the scribe of a reader's letter reproached the Rosenheim Jews in the local press for betraying the Entente's military exercises against the provisions of the Versailles Treaty at Rosenheim Gymnasium. Seven members of the Gymnasium and a member of the "Chiemgau" fell upon a villa inhabited by Jews in the autumn road, but they could not storm. On July 29, 1920, the Collegium of the City of Rosenheim decided that "... it was unfortunate that the movement to fight a popular Jewry [...], which is certainly justified in its nature, will be discredited by such excesses." Protests Of the Bavarian Israeli Central Union remained unsuccessful, and an unmistakable communication from the Bavarian Ministry of the Interior of September 1920 could restore peace.  On April 1, 1933, shortly after the Nazi Party was seized, guards were placed in front of Jewish businesses, who had the task of warning in the shops before they were bought, with the proviso that they were not allowed to be overthrown. A large part of the population, however, ignored these calls. The shops were therefore still frequented, much to the annoyance of the Nazi activists, who acted with the backing of the then mayor of Gmelch. Six of the eleven Jewish business owners in the city centre opened their business until 1937. Within the scope of the November pogroms of the Reich, the SA entered the last two Jewish shops between 3 and 4 o'clock in the morning on November 10, 1938, and destroyed inventory and goods.  The fate of numerous Rosenheim Jews is documented. Who could emigrate - mostly to the USA. However, many entry and exit requests failed and many were assassinated in concentration camps.
Hitler giving a speech to a crowd on the 15th anniversary of the NSDAP chapter in Rosenheim, the first major NS Ortsgruppe to have formed outside Munich, at Max Joseph Square on August 11 1935:
At that time [1920] we stood one man pitted against ten, and we did not let up from this struggle until success was won. Today nine members of the Volk as a whole stand pitted against one of the little doubters. if we did not capitulate then, we will certainly not capitulate now.
Fighting we once conquered the German Reich, and fighting we will maintain and preserve it. Let those who are against us not be deceived! We have never shunned the fight—not then, and not now. If they want the fight, they can have it! We will give them such a battering (niederschmettern) that they will abandon every thought of continuing this fight for the next fifteen years!
Today the Movement is the Movement of Germany; today this Movement has conquered the German nation and is shaping the Reich. Would that have been possible without the blessing of the Almighty? Or would those who ruined Germany back then pretend they had God’s blessing? What we are is what we have become not against, but by virtue of the will of Providence, and as long as we are loyal, honest and courageous in battle, as long as we believe in our great cause and do not capitulate, we will continue to enjoy the blessing of Providence. If those who ruined Germany in fifteen years fancy today, in light of the National Socialist achievements in reconstruction, that they see a ray of hope, I can only answer: That would please you fine, now that there is once again something to be squandered away!
And if Fate should choose to test us in the future, we hope that such hammer blows of Providence will make us truly hard and strong...
If we have the sacred will to educate our Volk in this unity, then after decades of unceasing work, National Socialism as a Weltanschauung will have become the great mutual experience consolidating our Volk, and then a Volk will exist which is filled to its innermost depths with the sense of its common task and mission. My belief in respect to the future is just as unshakeable as it was fifteen years ago in respect to today! At that time I created this flag and said that it would one day fly over the whole of Germany. Fifteen years have passed, and waving over Germany are our flags! And today I further predict: in five hundred years this flag will have become the lifeblood of the German nation!
 
Hitlerjugend during Kriegstag in 1942.
 Bombing during the Second World War  From the beginning of bombing raids on German cities in the spring of 1942, Rosenheim was not spared. In November 1943 there were shelters for only 650 people for a city population of approximately 22,000. However, by February 1944 shelters had been built for about 6400 people and in conjunction with other shelters a total of 10,525 people could be protected.  During 14 bomb attacks, 201 people were killed and 179 injured. The focus of the air attacks was the railway station and the railway tracks, as Rosenheim was an important transportation hub between Munich, Salzburg and Innsbruck. The neighbouring communities of Ziegelberg, Stephanskirchen, Westerndorf St. Peter and Oberpfaffenhofen were also hit. The first air attack on October 20 1944 at lunch time from 12:47 to 13:17 O'clock with over a hundred aircraft, dropped 1,000 bombs, leaving 27 dead and 59 wounded. The heaviest air raid took place on 18 April 1945. From 14:40 to 14:55 around 200 to 1300 aircraft dropped bombs in the area around the station, resulting in 53 dead and 36 injured, in addition, this attack also made 800 people homeless. The station building was almost completely destroyed, railway tracks were destroyed over a length of 20 kilometres. The last air attacks were made on 19 and 21 April 1945. During the war the majority of at least 173 duds were recovered. In 1964, the Oberbayerische Volksblatt reported that the approximate location of 38 undiscovered unexploded ordnance was known.
 
The Flötzinger Bräustüberl, where Hitler spoke April 21, 1921. The photo on the left shows owner Franz Xaver Simson in front of the window the year before. He celebrated his birthday here in 1925. Ten years later, after an operation to remove a polyp on May 23, Hitler spoke here for the first time on August 11, 1935. The NSDAP chapter in Rosenheim was celebrating its fifteenth anniversary; it was the first major NS Ortsgruppe to have formed outside Munich. Hitler made use of the opportunity to rail against his domestic opponents and to support current action being taken against Stahlhelm members and former Centrists, declaring:

At that time [1920] we stood one man pitted against ten, and we did not let up from this struggle until success was won.Today nine members of the Volk as a whole stand pitted against one of the little doubters. if we did not capitulate then, we will certainly not capitulate now. Fighting we once conquered the German Reich, and fighting we will maintain and preserve it. Let those who are against us not be deceived! We have never shunned the fight—not then, and not now. If they want the fight, they can have it! We will give them such a battering (niederschmettern) that they will abandon every thought of continuing this fight for the next fifteen years!
Today the Movement is the Movement of Germany; today this Movement has conquered the German nation and is shaping the Reich. Would that have been possible without the blessing of the Almighty? Or would those who ruined Germany back then pretend they had God’s blessing? What we are is what we have become not against, but by virtue of the will of Providence, and as long as we are loyal, honest and courageous in battle, as long as we believe in our great cause and do not capitulate, we will continue to enjoy the blessing of Providence.
If those who ruined Germany in fifteen years fancy today, in light of the National Socialist achievements in reconstruction, that they see a ray of hope, I can only answer: That would please you fine, now that there is once again something to be squandered away! [—]

And if Fate should choose to test us in the future, we hope that such hammer blows of Providence will make us truly hard and strong.
If we have the sacred will to educate our Volk in this unity, then after decades of unceasing work, National Socialism as a Weltanschauung will have become the great mutual experience consolidating our Volk, and then a Volk will exist which is filled to its innermost depths with the sense of its common task and mission. My belief in respect to the future is just as unshakeable as it was fifteen years ago in respect to today! At that time I created this flag and said that it would one day fly over the whole of Germany. Fifteen years have passed, and waving over Germany are our flags! And today I further predict: in five hundred years this flag will have become the lifeblood of the German nation!

Hitler had obviously just decided to make the swastika the sole German national flag and to pass a law to this effect at the upcoming Reich Party Congress.