South Tyrol

WORK IN PROGRESS!
German Tiger tank in front of the IV army command on September 9, 1943 on today's Piazza 4 Novembre.  Divided into two divergent wings, one of which on via Cadorna and the other along Via Armando Diaz, this building served as the offices and houses of the military. Following the Nazi occupation in September 1943, the corps became the headquarters of the Gestapo. In this building two Italian Resistance partisans, Manlio Longon and Giannantonio Manci were killed- their memorial plaques are located at the entrance door. 


In front of the former headquarters of the INA built in 1936 and now housing the Biblioteca Civica just before the bridge that was to lead to the "new Bolzano" on the other side of the river. Large semicircular buildings were also planned on both sides towards the historic center, of which only the left-hand side was
In front of the corps, one is struck by an imposing residential building, built in 1940 by the INA, with a richly decorated façade: ships, bees and bundles of wheat symbolize the richness of Italy.
After the First World War, the Treaty of Saint-Germain-en-Laye (1919) rewarded Italy with County of Tyrol's territory south of the Brenner Pass. As a result, Bozen-Gries station was transferred to the Italian railway network and came under the management of the Ferrovie dello Stato (FS).  From 1927 to 1929 the station building was replaced by one in the style of Italy's fascist regime. It was designed by the architect Angiolo Mazzoni. The facade on the access road to the station was reworked into two half-columns and flanked by two statues, which were crafted by the Austrian artist Franz Ehrenhöfer, to represent electricity and steam. Ehrenhöfer also created masks on the cornices for the station complex, a fountain of St. Christopher and an allegory of River Adige (River Etsch) above the entrance to the clock tower,

 
The work of G. Mayr of Fiè, the fountain was erected in the eighteenth century, on the site where the public foothold for peasants existed. In Bolzano this is the only monumental fountain of the eighteenth century and represents Neptune, with three dolphins dominating large bronze shell-shaped cups. The god of the sea raises to the sky the classic trident: for this reason, the Bolzanians confidentially call the fountain “Gabelwirt” (innkeeper with the fork).

Brixen
Protesting the forcible annexation of South Tyrol to Italy after the Great War 
1918 Italian troops occupied Bressanone, which together with the entire Alto Adige became part of the Kingdom of Italy, while the remaining territory of the Tyrol (North Tyrol and East Tyrol) remained to Austria.  Until 1925 in the city center there was a surveillance service, organized by the so-called "night watchmen". They watched over the public order during the night, having closed the gates of the walls. They also had to warn in case of fires, thefts and sightings of enemies, as well as announcing the exact time out loud. In particular in Brixen it happened that one of the guardians died suddenly, and his wife took his place, thus giving rise to the legend of the "lady of the tower".

 Fascist rally in front of Brixen's town hall in 1930 with the banner "Ubi Rex, ibi Lex - ubi Dux, ibi Lux" on the facade.

During fascism, the city was the object of a process of forced Italianization with the entire region. Subsequently the "Options" were implemented, an agreement between the Kingdom of Italy and Germany that obliged the South Tyrolean citizens to choose between Italian and German citizenship and between remaining in the province, accepting the definitive Italianization, or moving beyond the border. In 1928 the territories of the suppressed municipalities of Millan (Milland), Sarnes (Sarns), Albes (Albeins) and Monteponente (Pfeffersberg) are aggregated to the municipal territory, and the hamlet of Elvas, detached from the municipality of Naz. In 1941 the territories of the suppressed municipality of Sant'Andrea in Monte (St. Andrä) are aggregated. From 1943 to 1945 the city was part of the Pre-Alps Operation Zone.

Posthaus des 'elephanten' gegen nordosten. Sitz des Wertfestsetzungkommission, ca. 1940.
 The general had few soldiers with him, but a ‘prisoner of honour’ Colonel Bogislaw von Bonin was able to put through a call to General Heinrich von Vietinghoff in Bolzano. When he informed the commander of the presence of the Prominenten, Vietinghoff despatched troops to protect them. They were not due before dawn, however, and Bader’s men were still eager for blood. The prisoners went to a hotel on the market square where Frau Heiss, manager of the Hotel Elefant in Brixen, regaled them with Kaiserschmarrn (An atomised sweet omelette filled with raisins and a favourite of the Emperor Franz Joseph – hence the name) – a great treat after the food they had eaten in their various concentration camps. Bader, however, had not given up: ‘Müller raus!’ (Come out, Müller!). Colonel von Bonin, however, had been allowed to go into captivity with his pistol. He drew it and aimed it at the SS man: ‘Ich zähle bis drei, bei zwei sind sie eine Leiche!’ (I’ll count to three. On two you are a dead man). Bader’s men took the hint.
MacDonogh (83) After the Reich
 Memorial to the fallen, winter 1944, domplatz

The march on Bolzano, which took place between 1 and 2 October 1922 , was an event organized by the National Fascist Party, directed against the German majority in South Tyrol, whose success resulted in the dismissal of Julius Perathoner, the last German-speaking burgomaster German of Bolzano elected before the fascist period. 
After the annexation of the South Tyrol , following the end of the First World War and the Treaty of Saint-Germain-en-Laye , the nationalist and fascist propaganda launched with increasing violence against the ethnic minorities, in particular Slavic and Germanic , considered the guilty of the so-called " mutilated victory ".  Among the major proponents of an intransigent policy towards the Germanic minority in the Tyrol annexed to the Kingdom of Italy stood out the Trentino Ettore Tolomei .  The first episode of violence against the then German majority of Bolzano was consummated on the blood Sunday in 1921, provoking dozens of injured and one dead, killed by fascist squads. According to the Fascists, the day had to take on an anti-Italian meaning, so they tried to prevent it and prepared a counter-demonstration, bringing the comrades of many provinces to Bolzano, under the command of Achille Starace . Julius Perathoner, mayor of Bolzano since 1895, was unprepared to fascists as a symbol of intransigent Germanization and resistance against any form of Italianisation. Perathoner, who in his first speech as mayor in 1895 had still shown himself to be a supporter of a peaceful coexistence between the German and Italian Bolzanians, became one of the major spokesmen of the Tyrolean pangermanist sentiment and joined the Volksbund , which counted among its exponents the extremist Wilhelm Rohmeder . 
On September 26, 1922, the Bolzano group of the National Fascist Party sent an ultimatum to the municipal administration, asking for the resignation of Mayor Perathoner and the making available to the school Elisabethschule for education in Italian. At the end of September, the start of the school year was scheduled.  Perathoner, who had been confirmed as mayor by Vittorio Emanuele III for a few months, refused, arguing that it would not be conceivable to remove a school to 500 German students to give it to 100 Italian students, posing a compromise.
 The Fascists, refusing any negotiation, occupied the Elisabethschule school building at the dawn of 1 October, renaming it in "Regina Elena" (since then the school has remained Italian, with the name "Dante Alighieri elementary school"). The next day they attacked the Municipality of Bolzano, threatening to incinerate it if Perathoner had not been removed  The civil commissioner for the Venice Tridentine Luigi Credaro invited the Government Facta to cede to fascist pressures and on 2 October 1922 the Government declared Perathoner lapsed by the mayor's office, on the grounds that he had not been notified of the appointment confirmation. The appointment was however published at the beginning of June 1922. Luigi Credaro was also subsequently dismissed, through fascist pressure, on October 28, 1922.
 Throughout the affair, the Italian police and the Carabinieri weapon did not intervene to stop the fascist squads, thus showing the weakness of the Italian democratic government.  Just three weeks later the march on Rome began , bringing Benito Mussolini to power. The march on Bolzano was considered by Ettore Tolomei and by the Fascists, but also by some contemporary historians, as a "general test" for the taking of power by Mussolini. 
In front of the former headquarters of the fascist party (PNF), the so-called "Casa Littoria, built between 1939 and 1942. Today it serves as the Finance Office. The façade is slightly curved towards the outside, thus acting as a pendant to the concave façade of the Palazzo del Tribunale which is opposite. The building has a trapezoidal plan with an inner courtyard bordered on the sides by colonnades supporting the so-called "arengario", the balcony from which party officials held their meetings. The most valuable element of the building is the monumental survey - by sculptor Hanns Piffrader, originally from Chiusa - dedicated to the rise of fascism and its glorification. Made of travertine, it is 35 meters long and 5.5 meters high.
The façade is slightly curved towards the outside, thus acting as a pendant to the concave façade of the Palazzo del Tribunale which is opposite. The building has a trapezoidal plan with an inner courtyard bordered on the sides by colonnades supporting the so-called "arengario", the balcony from which party officials held their meetings.
The most astonishing element of the building is the monumental survey by sculptor Hanns Piffrader, originally from Chiusa - dedicated to the rise of fascism and its glorification. Made of travertine, it is 35 meters long and 5.5 metres high.
In the center we find the Duce on horseback, flanked by the motto "believe, obey, fight" and by the acronyms of fascist organizations. The narration on stone starts at the bottom left with the representation of the victory of the First World War (cannon with laurel wreath and soldiers returning home) and the post-war agitations (burning torch and burning houses). The foundation of the Fasci di Combattimento and the March on Rome of October 1922 are illustrated in the upper section of the survey. To the right of Mussolini's effigy is the history of the fascist regime: in the upper range are the colonial politics in Libya, next to it the one in Ethiopia and finally the intervention in the Spanish civil war. In the lower band we find a series of allegorical figures: Justice, Art and Science, followed by Sport, Agriculture and the Family.

 1  An equestrian 'il Duce', surrounded by inscriptions from the main Fascist organizations and four allegorical figures.  Mussolini on horseback dominates the scene, raising his right arm in the Roman salute. The key elements that surround him are: four allegorical figures, the symbols of the Fascist university groups, the National Fascist Party, the National Afterwork Organisation, the Italian Youth of the Littorio, and the Voluntary Militia for National Security. The date of completion is shown using the Fascist calendar ANNO XX EF (the twentieth year of the Fascist era = 1942). Finally, there is il Duce's command: Believe, Obey, Fight.  In chronological order, starting from the bottom left:







2  The End of the Great War and the Return of the Soldier A cannon bedecked with laurel leaves symbolizes the Italian victory in the First World War, November 1918. The soldiers return to their homes and the first of these, an Alpine soldier, is met by his wife and two children.

3  The Revolutionary Fury of the Red Biennium (1919–1920) Four aggressive-looking figures, immediately to the right, symbolize the violence perpetrated by subversives, in the years following the First World War. One of them holds a flaming torch, while buildings burn in the background.

 4  The Fascist "Martyrs" of Bolshevik Violence This scene represents the victims of Bolshevik violence. To the left is the representation of someone who actually lived, mythologised by the regime and made into one of its first martyrs. This is the young Fascist Giovanni Berta, who was killed in Florence in February 1921 after being thrown in the River Arno and failing to cling to the bridge. On the right, are two imaginary figures of Fascists, who are bound and tormented with fire.

Second Section (above left):
5  23rd March, 1919: Mussolini establishes the Fasci di Combattimento The inscription “W MUSSOLINI” (long live Mussolini) introduces the scene of il Duce founding the Fasci Italiani di Combattimento, in Milan on 23rd March 1919. This is the forerunner of the National Fascist Party (PNF). To the centre is Mussolini carrying the founding charter, flanked by three followers swearing allegiance.



6  Fascist Squads do Battle Fascists fight furiously against Bolshevik enemies. The violence of the Fascist Squads is shown as sacrifice for the homeland. The wounded Fascist combatant in the centre recalls another work by Piffrader of the Deposition of Christ.



7  28th October, 1922: The Fascist March on Rome The Fascist Youth with a drum marks time for the March on Rome: the prelude to Fascists taking power. In front of him, a formation of battle-hardened Fascists led by a standard bearer. In the background to the left, are the Colosseum and the hills of Rome.  Third Section (top right):





8  The Roman Legionary and the Fascist Warrior A Roman Legionary, in a martial stance, holds a shield and the Roman standard with the acronym of the Roman Republic SPQR (Senatus Populus Que Romanus, the Senate and the Roman People). Assuming this inheritance, to the side of the legionary, is the Fascist warrior. He has on one side the law with the sword, whilst on the other Lictor's Fasces: the symbol of Fascism.
 
9  The Fascist Imperial Conquest: Libya and Ethiopia Libya conquered by Fascism is depicted as the figure wearing a long tunic. It is next to a representation of the Fileni Arch, an architectural work along the Litoranea Libica, the Libian coast road inaugurated by Mussolini in 1937. There are two militiamen killing two roaring lions. The first animal is the Lion of Judah, embodying Emperor Haile Selassie of Ethiopia; the second is the British Lion, impotently opposing the Italian conquest of Ethiopia. To close the scene there is an African figure, subjected to British colonial rule in the Mediterranean.

10  Italian Participation in the Spanish Civil War The bearded man wearing an ammunition belt represents an Italian volunteer rushing to Spain to fight for Fascism. He holds his arm raised, to symbolize the fierce defence of Toledo's Alcázar fortress, shown in the background. Between July and September 1936, the nationalist forces barricaded themselves in, managing to resist the long Republican siege. They were subsequently liberated by troops sent to their rescue by Franco. Alcázar immediately became one of the legends of the Franco regime about the Spanish civil war. At the volunteer’s side, the waving triangular flags contain numerous symbols, which include that of Franco’s Spanish Falangists. Following, a veiled woman symbolizes oppressed Spain, while a Spanish man in typical attire carries a basket of gifts.




Fourth Section (bottom right): 
11  Arts, Science & Sports Education in Fascist Italy This part opens the last series of scenes, all dedicated to the Fascist idyll, or to the peace and prosperity attributed to the advent of the regime. The three figures here represent: the arts, which is the youth with classical theatre masks; science, holding a roll of parchment; and sports education, the young gymnast with two divers behind.


12  The Fascist-assured Agricultural Wealth Three women laden with grapes, fruit and grain symbolize the country's abundance and food self-sufficiency under the symbol of Fascism.

13  The Family and Reconstruction under the Sign of Pax Fascista The family in peaceful Italy is shown through the man hanging up his rifle, while his wife holds a child as it gives fruit to his father. A distance away, a worker builds a new home.

14  Il Duce as Builder, or possibly the Artist with his Project, under the Sign of il Duce To conclude the frieze there is a male figure. This may be Mussolini, as architect of the new Italy, although it is most likely the actual sculptor, Piffrader, with his project in hand. In the upper right is the inscription DVX and at the bottom, the signature of the artist: Giov. Piffrader, aged 52.
 
The Justitia relief at the courthouse
The northern development forms the approximately 40 meters wide and about 12 meters high courthouse. There are today the provincial court of Bolzano, the prosecutor and the Bar Association of Bolzano. In the middle of the facade, a relief is set in which shows a sitting Justitia (Justice). A special feature is that it does not wear a blindfold as a symbol of impartiality. To the left of Justitia stands a judge with the law book ("Lex"), on the right a soldier with a big sword. At the very top of the roof, in large chiselled letters, is "PRO ITALICO IMPERIO VIRTUTE IUSTITIA HIERARCHIA UNGUIBUS ET ROSTRIS" ("In bravery and justice for the rule in the Italian Empire with teeth and claws").












There is the residential and commercial building, built in 1932-33 by the Roman architect Paolo Rossi de 'Paoli on behalf of the INA (National Insurance Institute), and on his right the INFPS Building (National Socialist Fascist Providence Institute), built in the years 1933-35 by the same architect. In the 1930s, these large national institutes financed the construction of several buildings in Bolzano, which have similar stylistic features, such as cornices or the natural stone cladding of the hooves.


Before turning around, we see on the left, in via Dante 1, one of the INCIS residential complexes (ù), built by the "National Institute for the Houses of State Employees". This is one of the first lots realized, between 1926 and 1928, on a project by the Roman architect Alberto Calza Bini who was going to occupy the last non-built area of the so-called "Neustadt", a nineteenth-century extension, in historicist style, of the center historian.

Chiusa