Remaining Nazi sites around Berchtesgaden

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Strub
Originally the Adolf Hitler Kaserne, the Jägerkaserne is a barracks of the Bundeswehr in built in September 1937 according to the plans of Munich architect Bruno Biehler. It was described at the time as "the most beautiful barracks in the most beautiful part of the Reich"once the necessary land for the barracks area was expropriated. On November 11, 1938, the 2nd Battalion of Mountaineer Regiment 100 moved into the barracks. After the war on May 4, 1945 allied troops occupied the barracks which were then used to accommodate displaced persons.
 
The Nazi eagle remains above the entrance, its swastika replaced with an edelweiss whilst the Lion Monument in front commemorates the Mountain Troops killed in the war.
Just further down the road is what was the Adolf Hitler Jugendherberge which is still used as a youth hostel. It was designed by architect Georg Zimmermann from 1935-1938; on Hitler's 46th birthday on April 20, 1935, Reich Youth Leader Baldur von Schirach solemnly laid the foundation stone for the "educational institution for National Socialism" in front of 2,300 Hitler Youth - today's Haus Untersberg. A few years later, the hostel was expanded to accommodate up to a thousand guests. Schirach was sentenced in the Nuremberg Trials for crimes against humanity; the youth hostel remained. 
On the right Hitler is seen making a personal visit from the pages of the Illustrierter Beobachter of October 29, 1936. Through the process of Gleichschaltung the Hitler Youth took over the running of the network of Jugendherbergen, enabling them to determine who could or could not spend the night in one.
 
This old folks' home in Strub at Insulaweg 1 once served as a sports academy for the Bund deutscher Mädel (BDM - League of German Girls). Behind the complex original sculptures remain.


Stanggass Reichskanzlei Berchtesgaden
The Reich Chancellery office in Berchtesgaden served as Hitler's second seat of government next to the Reich Chancellery in Berlin. Construction began in mid-September 1936 under the architect Alois Degano who had immediately encountered difficulties as the groundwater level was very high which led to a foundation built upon 620 concrete piles. Degano had chosen a main building with a side wing as well as a garage built to provide staff accommodation. The opening ceremony took place on January 18, 1937 with the completion of all buildings by July that year.  In parallel with the stays in the nearby Berghof on the Obersalzberg, Hitler used the working spaces of this so-called 'Little Reich Chancellery' to establish a total of about 125 laws and regulations. In addition to housing the High Command of the Wehrmacht, political guests were received in this building and later further buildings were added for use when needed.
 
Hitler visiting the site.
The chief of the Reichskanzlei, Hans Lammers, welcoming Field Marshall Keitel at the entrance. On January 18, 1937 during the roofing ceremony at the site of the Chancellery’s new office building, State Secretary Lammers expounded upon the indispensability of such a structure to house a branch of the Reich Government by stating, “The Führer is always on duty, no matter whether it is during the week, on the weekend or while he is on vacation.” 
Lammers’ choice of the word “vacation” in this context was most unfortunate. It was Hitler’s personal conviction that since he was always on duty, he could never be “on vacation.” He liked to claim for himself that he had never had more than “three days of leave” in his entire life. In the course of the festivities, Hitler delivered a ‘secret speech’ to the construction workers, describing himself as “one to have emerged from amongst their ranks.”
Doramus (860)
Over time Lammers would lose power and influence given both the increasing irrelevancy of his position due to the war and as a consequence of Martin Bormann's growing influence with Hitler. During the final days of the Third Reich, Lammers was arrested by ϟϟ troops in connection with the upheaval surrounding Hermann Göring. Lammers would ironically be rescued when he was captured by American forces, but his wife Elfriede ended up committing suicide near Obersalzberg in early May 1945, as did his younger daughter, Ilse, two days later. In April 1949 Lammers was tried in the so-called Ministries Trial and sentenced to twenty years in prison which was later reduced to ten years. On December 16, 1951, he was released from the Landsberg prison with his sentence declared as served. He died on January 4, 1962 in Düsseldorf, and was buried in Berchtesgaden in the same plot as his wife and daughter.
 
Seen from the front and rear during the Nazi era and today
 
The Reichsadler is still present, sans swastika, after 75 years. After the war until 1995 the building was used by the US Army. In 2004 the building controversially came under the temporary use of family therapist Bert Hellinger who wrote of Hitler: “Some consider you unhuman, as if ever someone existed on earth who might be called like that. I just look at you as a human being like myself... When I confess you were a human being like I am, I look onto Something disposing of both of us in the same vein”.
 
Keitel's actual house is nearby. Keitel is seen in the centre at Karlhorst in Berlin during the surrender ceremony. 


 The Dietrich Eckart Clinic in Stanggaß was built in 1938 on Hitler's orders as a district hospital and named after Dietrich Eckart. Hitler, who used the region around Berchtesgaden from 1928 privately and after the seizure of power politically, had arranged on personal request to build an additional, "country-appropriate new hospital" given that the old district hospital had long since become too small and no longer met the modern medical requirements. Architect Edgar Berge built a low-rise building for roughly two hundred patients with balconies. A special feature here was that all rooms were south-facing and the balconies were big enough to push the beds into the sun. The Dietrich Eckart Clinic has the typical features of a Nazi building, starting with its considerable size and swanky entrance hall in the main building, which was built with red Untersberg marble and was also very generously planned. All other stairs under construction were of white marble. The hospital even had its own bunker, which was converted into a theatre after the war.  Private patients had their own two-story compartment, which was accessible from the main building with a sloping elevator and for the time was considered a special feature. In addition, the hospital had a swimming pool and library.  From the outside, the Dietrich Eckart Clinic is very similar to the typical regional architectural style, decorated with elaborate hand paintings and offerering an impressive view of the mountain panorama. On May 6, 1938, the foundation stone was laid in the presence of Erich Hilgenfeldt, head of the National Socialist People's Welfare (NSV). Although the topping-out ceremony was celebrated on December 15, 1939, Adolf Wagner- the Gauleiter of Munich Upper Bavaria and Bavarian Interior Minister- opened the new district hospital Dietrich Eckart only on June 13, 1942. The NSV bore the costs of construction and provided the nursing staff. It was considered one of the country's most modern National Socialist sanatoriums . From the end of 1942, the Dietrich Eckart Clinic was immediately used as a Wehrmacht hospital; only after the end of the war did everyday life move back into the building complex. The planned Nazi nursery school, for which plans already existed, was postponed during the war, but ultimately not realised. In 1996, the hospital closed due to the insolvency of the operator and remains derelict today. The future of the building is uncertain, and the building is currently surrounded by barbed wire fencing to prevent access from the curious and other unwanted visitors.
Further away is Göllhäusl, a cottage used by Dietrich Eckart in the 1920s, shown after being renamed Eckarthaus when it was visited by Hermann Göring, Werner von Blomberg, and Hitler in the 1930s and how it appears today, considerably changed. One of the founders of the Deutsche Arbeiterpartei, which later evolved into the Nazi Party, Eckart was a participant in the 1923 Beer Hall Putsch and is credited with coining the Nazi motto Deutschland Erwache. Hitler dedicated the second volume of Mein Kampf to him.
Dietrich Eckart, twenty-one years older than Hitler, was often called the spiritual founder of National Socialism. A witty journalist, a mediocre poet and dramatist, he had translated Ibsen’s Peer Gynt and written a number of unproduced plays. In Berlin for a time he had led, like Hitler in Vienna, the bohemian vagrant’s life, become a drunkard, taken to morphine and, according to Heiden, been confined to a mental institution, where he was finally able to stage his dramas, using the inmates as actors. He had returned to his native Bavaria at the war’s end and held forth before a circle of admirers at the Brennessel wine cellar in Schwabing, the artists’ quarter in Munich, preaching Aryan superiority and calling for the elimination of the Jews and the downfall of the ”swine” in Berlin. ”We need a fellow at the head,” Heiden, who was a working newspaperman in Munich at the time, quotes Eckart as declaiming to the habitues of the Brennessel wine cellar in 1919, ”who can stand the sound of a machine gun. The rabble need to get fear into their pants. We can’t use an officer, because the people don’t respect them any more. The best would be a worker who knows how to talk ... He doesn’t need much brains . He must be a bachelor, then we’ll get the women.” What more natural than that the hard-drinking poet should find in Adolf Hitler the very man he was looking for? He became a close adviser to the rising young man in the German Workers’ Party, lending him books, helping to improve his German – both written and spoken – and introducing him to his wide circle of friends, which included not only certain wealthy persons who were induced to contribute to the party’s funds and Hitler’s living but such future aides as Rudolf Hess and Alfred Rosenberg. Hitler’s admiration for Eckart never flagged, and the last sentence of Mein Kampf is an expression of gratitude to this erratic mentor: "one of the best, who devoted his life to the awakening of our people, in his writings and his thoughts and finally in his deeds.”
Shirer (35-36) The Rise and Fall of the Third Reich



Bad Reichenhall
The swastika at the former General Ritter von Tutschek Kaserne has been transformed into an edelweiss. The army barracks, still in use today by the German army, was named after the Great War flying ace Adolf Ritter von Tutschek who was eventually credited with 27 victories. As German air strategy turned towards concentrated air power, he was entrusted with one of the world's first fighter wings. Now renamed the Hochstaufen Barracks, they were built in 1934 as part of the Nazi rearmament policy which led to Bad Reichenhall again becoming a garrison town. It was located in what was then the independent western neighbouring municipality of Karlstein before becoming incorporated into the town of Bad Reichenhall and to this day remains structurally virtually unchanged. In 1939 it served as the headquarters of the III. Btl. des Gebirgsjäger-Regimentes 100 with regimental staff and 16th Panzer-Abwehr-Abteilung. In addition, the 1st Division of the Mountain Artillery Regiment 79 and a medical squadron were housed in the southern part of the barracks.
During the April 25, 1945 bombing raid, the barracks suffered no significant damage with their numerous hospitals there. After the war the Americans set up a camp for displaced persons in the barracks.  On February 22, 1958, the first unit of the mountain artillery moved back into the barracks where it remains in use still by the Bundeswehr. Its name changed again on June 13, 1966 when the barracks was named after the former general of the mountain troops Rudolf Konrad. However, this became problematic due to Konrad's past history in the Wehrmacht during the war which was marked by partisan persecution and anti- Semitism which led to increased calls for another renaming of the barracks. On August 1, 2012, the Federal Minister of Defence Thomas de Maizière announced during a troop visit to Bad Reichenhall that both the General Konrad and the artillery barracks, which are structurally a single unit, would henceforth be named the Hochstaufen barracks and so, in a solemn ceremony in the presence of the Minister of Defence on September 17, 2012, the new inscription on the southern barracks gate was attached. The Hochstaufen is the highest peak of the Hausberg of Bad Reichenhall, whose foothills extend to the immediate vicinity of the barracks.
In the town itself on July 2, 1934 Hitler delivered a speech at a Führertagung of the SA, ϟϟ and Stahlhelm in Bad Reichenhall, after which he declared that
Under the leadership of the Chief of Staff of the SA, a convention of high- ranking SA and ϟϟ leaders took place in Bad Reichenhall from July 1 to July 3, to which the Bundesführer, Seldte, and numerous high-ranking leaders of the Stahlhelm were invited. The convention, which was designed particularly to promote the mutual acquaintance of leaders fighting in a single front, was characterized by a spirit of sincerity and comradeship. The common goal and the personal solidarity of the newly created soldierly front hold the promise of a lasting fighting community. In agreement with Bundesführer Seldte, I thus order as follows:
The entire Stahlhelm will be placed under the command of the Supreme SA Command and reorganized according to its guidelines. At the orders of the Supreme SA Command, the Jungstahlhelm and the sports units will be restructured by the Stahlhelm offices in accordance with the units of the SA. This transformation must be concluded by the date still to be determined by the Supreme SA Command. The Bundesführer shall issue the requisite commands in respect to the remaining sections of the Stahlhelm. As a demonstration of the solidarity of the Stahlhelm with the National Socialist Movement, these sections of the Stahlhelm shall wear a field-grey armband with a black swastika on a white background. I hereby bestow upon the Jungstahlhelm and the sports units which are part of my SA the armband of their organization and the national emblem to be worn on their caps between the cockades. The implementation provisions will be issued by the Chief of Staff. 
Adolf Hitler
GIF: The Saalachsee  at Bad Reichenhall
The Saalachsee  at Bad Reichenhall
It was here too on July 29, 1941 that General Jodl visited the O.K.W.'s operations staff and told its head, General Warlimont, that Hitler had made up his mind to prepare for war against Russia.
At a later date [Warlimont testified after the war] I talked with Hitler myself. He had intended to begin the war against the U.S.S.R. as early as the autumn of 1940, but he gave up this idea. The reason was that the strategic position of the troops at that time was not favourable for the purpose. The supplies to Poland were not good enough; railways and bridges were not prepared; the communication lines and aerodromes were not organized. Therefore, the order was given to secure the transport and to prepare for such an attack as would eventually be made.      Bullock (598-9)



On April 25 1945, the area was bombed by allied forces, 200 people were killed. The town centre with its many hospitals and the train station were nearly totally destroyed whilst the barracks didn't suffer any damage. After the war the area was under American military governance until 1948 but not before, on May 8, 1945, a dozen French PoWs from the ϟϟ Division Charlemagne were executed without trial on the orders of General Leclerc. They had earlier surrendered without a fight to the American troops. Some, including Ostuf Krotoff, belonged to the Hersche regiment. Others had left hospitals, as evidenced by the evacuation record they wear on their uniform. Lieutenant Briffault, a veteran of the LVF, did not serve in the SS Waffen and retired with the staff of the PPF on the shores of Lake Constance.  The Americans interned the French with German prisoners in the barracks above. On May 6, 1945, elements of the 2nd Armoured Division of General Leclerc, continuing their advance in Bavaria, occupy the small town. Upon learning that their guards will be relieved by Gaullists, the French SS decide to escape. They managed to cross the fence of the barracks and reached a small wood nearby only to be surrounded by two companies of the 2nd DB and placed under arrest. General Leclerc came to talk with them in person as the photographs taken by a war correspondent here testify. Castigating them for wearing the German uniform, the prisoners retort that he too is wearing a foreign uniform- of the Americans. General Leclerc then unilaterally decided to shoot the twelve French SS without even a military tribunal through three groups of four men.  In the afternoon, the twelve prisoners are driven by truck to Karlstein, or more precisely to a place called Ruglbach or Kugelbach. When it is announced that they were to be shot in in the back, the prisoners protested violently and demanded the right to stand in front. All refused to have their eyes blindfolded and were shot shouting "Long live France!" It was not until December 6, 1948 that an investigation was undertaken at the request of the family of one of the shot which nevertheless provided no details regarding the capture of the victims or to the circumstances of their deaths. Finally, on June 2, 1949, the corpses of the Karlstein clearing were exhumed and placed in the Sankt Zeno communal cemetery in Bad Reichenhall. The common grave is still there today at Group 11, Row 3, Numbers 81 and 82.
 
Schönau

Near Berchtesgaden in Schönau is Haus Köppeleck, still in operation since its time as a Kinderlandverschickung during the war, as shown in Jugend im Reich (34) from 1942. By September 27, 1940, Hitler had decided to create a program called Kinderlandverschickung (KLV- “sending of children to the land”) with the Hitler Youth in charge. Initially the evacuation was to apply only to children of school age from Berlin and Hamburg who lived in suburbs and parts of the cities which did not have sufficient air-raid shelters. The project soon became more extensive as the Allies stepped up their bombing campaign. In April 1942, there were already 850,000 evacuated boys and girls. The KLV was a large program carried out by the Nationalsozialistische Volkswohlfahrt (NSV—Nazi welfare organisation) and many girls of the BdM became involved in the care of children. Evacuated children were housed in homes, youth hostels, farms, monasteries, holiday camps, pensions, and special camps. These camps, approximately 5,000 of them varying in size, anywhere from 18 children to over 1,200. Each camp was run by Nazi-approved teachers and a Hitler Youth leader. These camps began replacing many urban grammar schools, most of which had been closed due to all the bombings. The KVL policy also served the purpose of removing children from their family environment which made it possible, to some extent, to implement indoctrination and militarisation. The KLV camps prepared German teenage boys for deadly encounters with Allied soldiers in the rubble and ruins of Hitler’s Germany. Parents were reluctant to send their children away to the camps, but those who refused to give their children permission to leave were denounced as unpatriotic. Parents were discouraged from visiting the KVL camps and homes in order not to intensify homesickness and also to avoid a strain on the public transportation system. From 1940 to 1945, over 2.8 million German children were sent to the KLV camps.
The Hotel Schiffmeister behind me in Schönau on the banks of the Königssee during the Nazi era and today. Speer relates how
before we reached our destination, the Schiffmeister restaurant, a band of enthusiasts began excitedly following our group; they had belatedly realized whom they had encountered. Hitler in the lead, almost running, we barely reached the door before we were overtaken by the swelling crowd. We sat over coffee and cake while the big square outside waited. Hitler waited until police reinforcements had been brought up before he entered the open car, which had been driven there to meet us. The front seat was folded back, and he stood beside the driver, left hand resting on the windshield, so that even those standing at a distance could see him. Two men of the escort squad walked in front of the car, three more on either side, while the car moved at a snail's pace through the throng. I sat as usual in the jump seat close behind Hitler and shall never forget that surge of rejoicing, the ecstasy reflected in so many faces. Wherever Hitler went during those first years of his rule, wherever his car stopped for a short time, such scenes were repeated. The mass exultation was not called forth by rhetoric or suggestion, but solely by the effect of Hitler's presence. Whereas individuals in the crowd were subject to this influence only for a few seconds at a time, Hitler himself was eternally exposed to the worship of the masses. At the time. I admired him for nevertheless retaining his informal habits in private.
Speer (48) Inside The Third Reich
 
Hitler in front of the entrance of the Hotel Schiffmeister and today.

 
Schneewinkellehen, Himmler's former residence (shown with daughter Gudrun)
 
On the left features a propaganda photo of Hitler in May 1933 and later, in uniform on the Obersee
Hermann Goering and his wife at the same spot. Goering had a hunting lodge above in the the Röth within the Neuhüttenalm area which is today found in ruins. In 1934 the area had been declared under Goering as a "nature reserve of special order" followed five years later with the Röth and surrounding areas declared a "Wildschutzgebiet." 
Of all Göring’s works during that grim period known as the Third Reich, only one has survived to this day: the enlightened Game Laws that he introduced. The animal world remained his own private kingdom. He was an impassioned huntsman  from a fraternity that has always deemed itself a cut above the rest. Hitler actually called the clannish hunting fraternity “that green Freemasonry.” He detested huntsmen, but even he found it useful to indulge Göring’s passion. Göring’s hunting diaries which are preserved portray a cavalcade of foreign diplomats and martial gentlemen accepting his invitations to Prussia’s hunting grounds. There he could meet as equals Czar Boris of Bulgaria, or the regent of Hungary, the kings of Greece and Romania, and the prince regent of Yugoslavia. This was all to the good, but it went beyond that. With Göring, the huntsmen had the inside track. Senior air-force officers who were not good shots found the going difficult. Hunting was as indispensable an asset to promotion in the Luftwaffe as polo was in the British Army. And woe betide those who did not praise Göring’s hunting hospitality or criticized his game.
Irving (258-9) Göring
 
From the cigarette card album Kampf ums Dritte Reich - Eine historische Bilderfolge and my Bavarian International School students at the same site
   
Hitler on a boat in front of Sankt Bartholomä on Königssee
Eva Braun practising gymnastics where the Königsbach river flows into Königssee and the view from atop the waterfall with her sister Gretl in 1940 in one of Braun's home movies.  

Hintersee
Hitler and his press chief Otto Dietrich on the terrace of the Gasthaus Seeklause, still in business as seen behind me.
Drake Winston standing near the spot where Hitler posed for a later postcard. On August 1, 1932 Hitler appointed the virtually unknown journalist Dr Otto Dietrich as chief of his new Press Office. 
Dietrich, six weeks older than Josef Goebbels, had only  been acquainted with Hitler recently whilst working for the Rheinisch- Westfälische Zeitung. As Reich Press Chief and State Secretary in the Propaganda Ministry he became a serious rival to Goebbels. Dietrich was in the anomalous position of being, on the one hand, a member of Hitler’s immediate entourage and in principle autonomous, and, on the other hand, of being theoretically subordinate to Goebbels. In addition, Dietrich, like Goebbels, was a Reichsleiter of the Nazi Party, which gave him the rank of a cabinet member. Dietrich, not Goebbels, issued the ‘Daily Directives of the Reich Press Chief’, which contained Hitler’s detailed directives to the newspaper editors. Dietrich remained a thorn in Goebbels side and the personal rivalry between the two was symptomatic of the chaotic nature of the Nazi political system that Hitler encouraged. Goebbels plotted to have him replaced claiming that he ‘was an inveterate weakling’ and ‘a foreign body in my Ministry’. For most of the war, however, Dietrich sheltered behind Hitler largely ignoring Goebbels’ orders. Finally on 30 March 1945 he was replaced. Goebbels joyfully recorded in his diary: ‘I hear from Reichsleiter Bormann that the Führer had a three minute interview with Dr. Dietrich at which Dietrich and Sündermann [Dietrich’s deputy] were sent packing in short order. I shall take full advantage of the opportunity and create faits accomplis in the press which it will be impossible to countermand later.’ Goebbels would never fulfil this task and this was to be one of the last entries that he ever wrote. 
Welch (241) The Third Reich: Politics and Propaganda